Lunar and Planetary Institute

The Tip of the Iceberg - Standards

The Tip of the Iceberg

Correlations to National Science Standards

Grades K-4
Science as Inquiry - Content Standard A
Abilities Necessary to do Scientific Inquiry

  • Plan and conduct a simple investigation. In the earliest years, investigations are largely based on systematic observations.
  • Employ simple equipment and tools to gather data and extend the senses (including observing, using thermometers and magnifiers).
  • Use data to construct a reasonable explanation.

Understanding About Scientific Inquiry

  • Scientific investigations involve asking and answering a question and comparing the answer with what scientists already know about the world.
  • Scientists use different kinds of investigations depending on the questions they are trying to answer. Types of investigations include describing objects, events, and organisms; classifying them; and doing a fair test (experimenting).
  • Simple instruments, such as magnifiers, thermometers, and rulers, provide more information than scientists obtain using only their senses.
  • Scientists develop explanations using observations (evidence) and what they already know about the world (scientific knowledge). Good explanations are based on evidence from investigations.

Physical Science - Content Standard B
Properties of Objects and Materials

  • Objects have many observable properties, including size, weight, shape, color, and temperature. These properties can be measured using tools, such as rulers, balances, and thermometers.
  • Materials can exist in different states — solid, liquid, and gas. Some common materials, such as water, can be changed from one state to another by heating or cooling.

Earth Science - Content Standard D
Properties of Objects and Materials

  • Earth materials are solid rocks and soils (and ice), water, and the gases of the atmosphere. The varied materials have different physical and chemical properties. Earth materials provide many of the resources humans use.

Grades 5-8
Science as Inquiry - Content Standard A
Abilities Necessary to do Scientific Inquiry

  • Identify questions that can be answered through scientific investigations.
  • Design and conduct a scientific investigation. Students should develop general abilities, such as systematic observation.
  • Use appropriate tools and techniques to gather, analyze, and interpret data.
  • Develop descriptions, explanations, predictions, and models using evidence.
  • Think critically and logically to make the relationships between evidence and explanations.

Physical Science - Content Standard B
Properties and Changes of Properties in Matter

  • A substance has characteristic properties, such as density, a boiling point, and solubility, all of which are independent of the of the amount of sample.


Last updated
October 19, 2009


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