Lunar and Planetary Institute

Flip-Flops and Boots - Standards

Flip-Flops or Boots

Correlations to National Standards

Grades K-4
Life Science - Content Standard C
Understanding Organisms and Environments

  • The world has many different environments, and distinct environments support the life of different types of organisms.
  • An organism's patterns of behavior are related to the nature of that organism's environment, including the kinds and numbers of other organisms present, the availability of food and resources, and the physical characteristics of the environment. When the environment changes, some plants and animals survive and reproduce, and others die or move to new locations.
  • Humans depend on their natural and constructed environments. Humans change environments in ways that can be either beneficial or detrimental for themselves and other organisms.

Earth and Space Science - Content Standard D
Changes in the Earth and Sky

  • Weather changes from day to day and over the seasons. Weather can be described by measurable quantities, such as temperature, wind direction and speed, and precipitation.

Science and Technology - Content Standard E
Understanding About Science and Technology

  • People have always had questions about their world. Science is one way of answering questions and explaining the natural world.

Understanding about Scientific Inquiry

  • People have always had problems and invented tools and techniques (ways of doing something) to solve problems. Trying to determine the effects of solutions helps people avoid some new problems.

Abilities to Distinquish between natural Objects and objects made by humans

  • Some objects occur in nature; others have been designed and made by people to solve human problems and enhance the quality of life.
  • Objects can be categorized into two groups, natural and designed.

Science in Personal and Social Perspectives - Content Standard F
Changes in Environments

  • Environments are the space, conditions, and factors that affect an individual's and a population's ability to survive and their quality of life.
  • Changes in environments can be natural or influenced by humans. Some changes are good, some are bad, and some are neither good nor bad. Pollution is a change in the environment that can influence the health, survival, or activities of organisms, including humans.
  • Some environmental changes occur slowly, and others occur rapidly. Students should understand the different consequences of changing environments in small increments over long periods as compared with changing environments in large increments over short periods.

National Standards for Social Studies
Early Grades
III. People, Places, and Environments
School Applications

  • Stimulate learners' interest in things distant and unfamiliar and help lay the foundation for concern about the use and abuse of the physical environment.
  • Have learners reflect upon elements in their environment and how we use and think about the physical and built environment. Stimulate learners' interest in things distant and unfamiliar and help lay the foundation for concern about the use and abuse of the physical environment.

IV. Geography

  • Provide learners with experiences that give them an understanding of the characteristics and purposes of geographic representations, such as maps, globes, and satellite-produced images. Learners can be taught the location of major physical and human features in the United States and on Earth. Learners in the early grades can be introduced to the spatial dimensions of social and environmental problems.

National Science Education Standards
Grades 5-8
Life Science - Content Standard C
Populations and Ecosystems

  • Populations of organisms can be categorized by the function they serve in an ecosystem.

Understanding Regulation and Behavior

  • All organisms must be able to obtain and use resources, grow, reproduce, and maintain stable internal conditions while living in a constantly changing external environment.

Understanding Populations and Ecosystems

  • The number of organisms an ecosystem can support depends on the resources available and abiotic factors, such as quantity of light and water, range of temperatures, and soil composition. Given adequate biotic and abiotic resources and no disease or predators, populations (including humans) increase at rapid rates. Lack of resources and other factors, such as predation and climate, limit the growth of populations in specific niches in the ecosystem.

Earth and Space Science - Content Standard D
Understanding the Structure of the Earth System

  • Water, which covers the majority of the Earth's surface, circulates through the crust, oceans, and atmosphere (and cryosphere) in what is known as the “water cycle.”
  • Clouds, formed by the condensation of water vapor, affect weather and climate.
  • Global patterns of atmospheric movement influence local weather. Oceans have a major effect on climate, because water in the oceans holds a large amount of heat.

Understanding Earth's History

  • The earth processes we see today, including erosion, movement of lithospheric plates, and changes in atmospheric composition, are similar to those that occurred in the past. Earth history is also influenced by occasional catastrophes, such as the impact of an asteroid or comet.

Science in Personal and Social Perspectives - Content Standard F
Understanding Populations, Resources, and Environments

  • Human activities also can induce hazards through resource acquisition, urban growth, land-use decisions, and waste disposal. Such activities can accelerate many natural changes.
  • Natural hazards can present personal and societal challenges because misidentifying the change or incorrectly estimating the rate and scale of change may result in either too little attention and significant human costs or too much cost for unneeded preventive measures.

Understanding Risks and Benefits

  • Risk analysis considers the type of hazard and estimates the number of people that might be exposed and the number likely to suffer consequences. The results are used to determine the options for reducing or eliminating risks.
  • Students should understand the risks associated with natural hazards (fires, floods, tornadoes, hurricanes, earthquakes, and volcanic eruptions), with chemical hazards (pollutants in air, water, soil, and food), with biological hazards (pollen, viruses, bacterial, and parasites), social hazards (occupational safety and transportation), and with personal hazards (smoking, dieting, and drinking).
  • Important personal and social decisions are made based on perceptions of benefits and risks.

Understanding Science and Technology in Society

  • Science influences society through its knowledge and world view. Scientific knowledge and the procedures used by scientists influence the way many individuals in society think about themselves, others, and the environment. The effect of science on society is neither entirely beneficial nor entirely detrimental.
  • Societal challenges often inspire questions for scientific research, and social priorities often influence research priorities through the availability of funding for research.

National Geography Standards
Grades K-12

  • Understand how to use maps and other geographic representations, tools, and technologies to acquire, process, and report information from a spatial perspective.
  • Understand how to use mental maps to organize information about people, places, and environments in a spatial context.
  • Understand how to analyze the spatial organization of people, places, and environments on Earth's surface.


  • Understand the physical and human characteristics of places.
  • Understand that people create regions to interpret Earth's complexity.
  • Understand how culture and experience influence people's perceptions of places and regions.


  • Understand the characteristics and spatial distribution of ecosystems on Earth's surface.

Understand the characteristics, distribution, and migration of human populations on Earth's surface.
Understand the characteristics, distribution, and complexity of Earth's cultural mosaics.


  • Understand how human actions modify the physical environment.
  • Understand how physical systems affect human systems.
  • Understand the changes that occur in the meaning, use, distribution, and importance of resources.


  • Understand how to apply geography to interpret the present and plan for the future.

National Standards for the English Language Arts
Students read a wide range of print and nonprint texts to build an understanding of texts, of themselves, and of the cultures of the United States and the world; to acquire new information; to respond to the needs and demands of society and the workplace; and for personal fulfillment. Among these texts are fiction and nonfiction, classic and contemporary works.

Students read a wide range of literature from many periods in many genres to build an understanding of the many dimensions (e.g., philosophical, ethical, aesthetic) of human experience.

Students apply a wide range of strategies to comprehend, interpret, evaluate, and appreciate texts. They draw on their prior experience, their interactions with other readers and writers, their knowledge of word meaning and of other texts, their word identification strategies, and their understanding of textual features (e.g., sound-letter correspondence, sentence structure, context, graphics).

Students apply knowledge of language structure, language conventions (e.g., spelling and punctuation), media techniques, figurative language, and genre to create, critique, and discuss print and nonprint texts.

Students conduct research on issues and interests by generating ideas and questions, and by posing problems. They gather, evaluate, and synthesize data from a variety of sources (e.g., print and nonprint texts, artifacts, people) to communicate their discoveries in ways that suit their purpose and audience.

Students use a variety of technological and information resources (e.g., libraries, databases, computer networks, video) to gather and synthesize information and to create and communicate knowledge.

Students develop an understanding of and respect for diversity in language use, patterns, and dialects across cultures, ethnic groups, geographic regions, and social roles.

Students use spoken, written, and visual language to accomplish their own purposes (e.g., for learning, enjoyment, persuasion, and the exchange of information).

National Visual Arts Standards

  • Students select and use subject matter, symbols, and ideas to communicate meaning


Last updated
December 3, 2009

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