Misconceptions and Educational Research
Common misconceptions include:
- The mantle is made entirely of liquid magma.
- Magma producing volcanos originates in the center of the Earth.
- Magma producing volcanos originates in the middle mantle.
- Volcanism is related to or caused by warmer climates.
- Volcanism is related to or caused by the ocean.
Research has been conducted on Earth science misconceptions:
DeLaughter, J. E., Stein, S., Stein, C. A., and Bain, K. R., 1998, Preconceptions Abound Among Students in an Introductory Earth Science Course, Eos, 79(36), 429.
Bisard, W. J., Aron, R. H., Francek, M. A., and Nelson, B. D., 1994, Assessing Selected Physical Science and Earth Science Misconceptions of Middle School through University PreService Teachers, Journal CST, September/October 1994.