With string, tape, and construction paper or poster board, make a large star with one side marked “Polaris” and the other marked “North Star.” Hang Polaris from the ceiling in the middle of the room.
Review with the children the apparent motion of the stars around Polaris in the night sky (Celestial Circles).
Share with the children that the zodiac is a group of 12 constellations. These constellations form a “band” in the heavens that follows the plane of the ecliptic. The ecliptic is the imaginary plane of the Earth’s orbit about the Sun. There are actually more than 12 constellations contained within the ecliptic plane, but ancient astronomers sited only these 12 as signs of the zodiac.
The children may be familiar with zodiac signs and horoscopes. This is a good time to differentiate between astrology (the belief that celestial bodies have an influence on humans) and astronomy (the science that deals, in part, with the observations of celestial bodies). As the children will learn, there are connections between visible zodiac constellations and the time of year. Refer to “About Polaris” for more information.
Provide each group with the materials and invite them to illustrate a constellation. Let them choose a constellation or use their birthday constellation — but each group should select a different constellation.
Invite each group to reproduce their constellation, using their imaginations and the images provided. For best results, they should make their constellation big enough to fill the black paper, and the stars should be about the size of dimes. Ask them to connect dots with a thin line of glue to outline the shape of the constellation and write the name of the constellation with the glue as well.
Note that the posters will need to dry overnight.
After the constellations have dried, invite the children to hang their posters around the room — spaced evenly across all the walls — in the order in which they are actually positioned on the ecliptic. Starting from Aries and going east, they are Aries, Leo, Sagittarius, Taurus, Virgo, Capricornus (sometimes known as Capricorn), Gemini, Libra, Aquarius, Cancer, Scorpius (sometimes known as Scorpio), and Pisces.
It is useful to know the 12 constellations in their correct order so that, in spotting one, a child can use it as a reference point in locating the others. Challenge the children to create an acronym or jingle to help them remember the constellation order.
Choose one child to represent Earth and position her underneath Polaris.
Have the Earth (child) extend one arm directly toward Polaris. Now have the children observe the Earth as she slowly rotates, turning her head.
Invite the children to speculate about why we see some zodiac constellations during some times of the year and others during different times. What are some other changes that the Earth goes through each year? What causes them? Celestial Circles further investigates the annual changes in the night sky.
For each group or pair of children:
Connections to the
tandards A, B&D (grades K–4): Understand and communicate that objects in the sky, such as stars, have patterns of movement on a nightly and yearly scale, caused by Earth’s rotation and orbit. The position of objects in the sky can be described by locating them relative to another object or the background.Standards A&D (grades 5–8): Understand and explain that the objects in our solar system are in regular and predictable motion. Apparent movement of the stars in the night sky is due to Earth’s own rotation on its axis and its orbit around the Sun.