Lunar and Planetary Institute






Exploration Strategies

Descriptions and governing documents of lunar exploration activities


Vision for Solar System Exploration

White House Documents

America at the Threshold: Report of the Synthesis Group on America's Space Exploration Initiative (1991)
U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington D.C., May 1991. [The Exploration Programs Office at JSC conducted assessments in 1992 leading to overall summaries and recommendations for each of the architectures proposed by the Synthesis Group. Results are documented in reports ExPO Internal Document No XE-92-001 through XE-92-004, which we also include here].

Analysis of the Synthesis Group's "Moon to Stay & Mars Exploration" Architecture
        ExPO Document XE-92-001, January 1992, 121 pages.

Analysis of the Synthesis Group's "Space Resource Utilization" Architecture
        ExPO Document XE-92-002, February 1992, 179 pages.

Analysis of the Synthesis Group's "Science Emphasis for the Moon and Mars" Architecture
        ExPO Document XE-92-003, March 1992, 153 pages.

Analysis of Synthesis Group Architectures: Summary and Recommendations
        ExPO Document XE-92-004, May 1992, 31 pages.

President Bush Delivers Remarks on U.S. Space Policy
(2004)

President Bush Announces New Vision for Space Exploration Program (2004)
Fact Sheet: A Renewal Spirit of Discovery

Executive Order: President's Commission on Implementation of United States Space Exploratin Policy (2004)

A Renewed Spirit of Discovery - The President's Vision for U.S. Space Exploration (2004)

Keynote Address:  44th Robert H. Goddard Memorial Symposium (2006)
John Marburger, Director, Office of Science & Technology Policy, Executive Office of the President

Unclassified - U.S. National Space Policy (2006)

Remarks on the President's National Space Policy (2006)
Robert C. Joseph, Under Secretary for Arms Control and International Security

A Bold Approach for Space Exploration and Discovery (2010)
Fact Sheet on the President's April 15th Address in Florida, Office of Science and Technology Policy

Remarks by the President on Space Exploration in the 21st Century (2010)
The White House, Office of the Press Secretary

National Space Policy of the United States of America (2010)
The White House, 28 June 2010

NASA Lunar Architecture

Report of the 90-Day Study on Human Exploration of the Moon and Mars (1989)
NASA-TM-102999, 159 pages

Integrated Technology Plan For the Civil Space Program (1991)

Space Resources (NASA SP-509) (1992)
Overview
Volume 1: Scenarios
Volume 2: Energy, power and transport
Volume 3: Materials
Volume 4: Social Concerns

An Accelerated Development, Reduced Cost Approach to Lunar/Mars Exploration Using Modular NTR-Based Space Transportation System (1992)
NASA-TM-107050, S. Borowski et al., 29 pages.

NASA Office of Exploration Systems Program Overview (2004)

The Vision for Space Exploration (2004)
NASA NP-2004-01-334-HQ, 32 pages.

NASA's Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS) (2005)

New Age for Exploration: NASA's Direction for 2005 and Beyond

Concept Exploration and Refinement Team Studies (2005)
[This study was supported by eleven teams and looked at approaches to lunar exploration in the context of the VSE. Each team developed their own approach, including scope and scale, to lunar exploration in the 2015–2030 timeframe and built an architecture to support this approach. These approaches were reasonably diverse and illustrate a good spectrum of ideas for a lunar program. Overview presentations at and detailed reports available through Mathew Barry at NASA Headquarters].

Lunar Exploration Objectives (2006)
Version 1, released December 2006

Lunar Precursor and Robotic Program Industry Day (2006)
Tony Lavoie, Program Manager; Julie Bassler, Deputy Program Manager, Leslie Curtis, Chief Engineer

Implementing the Vision - 2nd Space Exploration Conference Exploration Strategy and Architecture (2006)
Shana Dale, NASA Deputy Administrator

The Global Exploration Strategy: The Framework for Coordination (2007)
This multi-agency document involved discussions among 14 nations.  In alphabetical order, those agencies (nations) were:  ASI (Italy), BNSC (United Kingdom), CNES (France), CNSA (China), CSA (Canada), CSIRO (Australia), DLR (Germany), ESA (European Space Agency), ISRO (India), JAXA (Japan), KARI (Republic of Korea), NASA (United States of America), NSAU (Ukraine), and Roscosmos (Russia).  The document was released through the Office of International & Interagency Relations at NASA Headquarters. 25 pages.

The Constellation Architecture (2008)
NASA Administrator M.D. Griffin, Speech to the Space Transportation Association, 22 January 2008, 24 pages.

Seeking a Human Spaceflight Program Worthy of a Great Nation (2009)
Review of U.S. Human Spaceflight Plans Committee, Final Report, 155 pages.

Summary Report: The ISECG Reference Architecture for Human Lunar Exploration (2010)
K. Laurini et al., International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) International Architecture Working Group, 39 pages.

NASA Mars Reference Design

Human Exploration of Mars Design Reference Architecture 5.0 (2009)
NASA SP-2009-566, 100 pages.

Human Exploration of Mars Design Reference Architecture 5.0: Addendum (2009)
NASA SP-2009-566-ADD, 406 pages.

Mars Design Reference Architecture 5.0: Executive Summary (2009)
Briefing by Bret G. Drake, 47 pages.

European Space Agency Lunar Architecture

Mission to the Moon: Europe's Priorities for the Scientific Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon (1992)
Report of the Lunar Study Steering Group, European Space Agency. ESA SP-1150, 190 pages.

LEDA – A First Step in ESA’s Lunar Exploration Initiative (1995)
D. Kassing and M. Novara.

EuroMoon 2000 – A Plan for a European Lunar South Pole Expedition (2000) 
W. J. Ockels

Lunar Exploration Objectives and Requirements Definition (2010)
LL-ESA-ORD-413, James Carpenter, Richard Fisackerly, Sylvie Espinasse and the Lunar Exploration Definition Team, 120 pages.

ESA Strategic Framework for Human Exploration (2013)
Briefing by B. Hufenbach, 5 pages.

Science Challenges of Lunar Sample Return: Workshop Outcomes & Recommendations (2014)
J. Carpenter et al., 19 pages.

Advisory Group Reports

NASA Advisory Council (NAC)

Recommendations from the Workshop on Science Associated with the Lunar Exploration Architecture (2007)
H.H. Schmitt et al. (see also White Papers presented at the workshop)

National Research Council (NRC)

Human Exploration of Space: A Review of NASA's 90-Day Study and Alternatives (1990)

New Frontiers in the Solar System: An Integrated Exploration Strategy (2003)

Stepping-Stones to the Future of Space Exploration: A Workshop Report (2004)

NASA In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) Capability Roadmap Final Report (2005)
Sanders, G. B. and Duke, M. (eds.). Unpublished white paper, 49 pages.

In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) Capability Roadmap Progress Review (2005)
Final Presentation to the National Research Council (NRC). Powerpoint presentation, 204 charts.

The Scientific Context for Exploration of the Moon (2007)

NASA’s Strategic Direction and the Need for a National Consensus (2012)

Lunar Exploration Analysis Group (LEAG)

Click here for LEAG Reports

Lunar Exploration Science Working Group (LExSWG)

A Planetary Science Strategy for the Moon (1992)

Lunar Surface Exploration Strategy (1995)

Curation and Analysis Planning Team for Extraterrestrial Materials (CAPTEM)

Analysis of Lunar Sample Mass Capability for the Lunar Exploration Architecture (2007)

International Lunar Exploration Working Group (ILEWG)

Beatenberg Declaration (2004)

Cape Canaveral Lunar Declaration (2008)

International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG)

Global Exploration Roadmap (GER) (2011)

The Global Exploration Roadmap (2011)
By B. Hufenbach et al., IAC-11-B3.1.8, 10 pages.

ISECG Mission Scenarios and their Role in Informing Next Steps for Human Exploration Beyond Low Earth Orbit (2011)
By C. Culbert et al., IAC-11-D3.1.2, 18 pages.

The Global Exploration Roadmap (2013)
NP-2013-06-945-HQ, 50 pages.

Benefits Stemming from Space Exploration (2013)

International Academy of Astronautics (IAA)

The Next Steps in Exploring Deep Space (2004)

Planetary Society

Extending Human Presence into the Solar System:  An Independent Study for The Planetary Society on Strategy for the Proposed U.S. Space Exploration Policy (2004)

Other Reports

Issues and Opportunities Regarding the U.S. Space Program: A Summary Report of a Workshop on National Space Policy (2004)

Report of the Commission on the Scientific Case for Human Space Exploration (2005)
Royal Astronomical Society, 27 pages.

Space Exploration Review (2009)
British National Space Centre, 125 pages.

Science Objectives

Report of the Ad Hoc Working Group on Apollo Experiments and Training on the Scientific Aspects of the Apollo Program (1963)
The Sonett Report (final edition), 101 pages.

Horizons and Opportunities in Lunar Sample Science (1985)
Lunar and Planetary Sample Team (LAPST)

Unmanned Spaceflights Needed as Scientific Preparation for a Manned Lunar Base (1985)
in Lunar Bases, D.E. Wilhelms, 7 pages.

The Scientific Context for Exploration of the Moon: Final Report (2007)
Committee on the Scientific Context for Exploration of the Moon,
National Research Council

Lunar Surface Exploration Strategy (1995)

Lunar Exploration Objectives (2006)
Produced by NASA’s Global Exploration Strategy process

Exploration Objectives

Post-Apollo Lunar Science; Report of a Study by the Lunar Science Institute (1972) Recommendations for post-Apollo lunar science activities by many of the participants that planned and executed the Apollo lunar surface science investigations.

Status and Future of Lunar Geoscience
NASA SP-484 (1986)

Future Astronomical Observatories on the Moon (1988)
NASA Conference Publication 2489

Lunar Exploration Objectives (2006)
Produced by NASA’s Global Exploration Strategy process

Voyages: Charting the Course for Sustainable Human Space Exploration (2011)
NASA NP-2011-06-395-LaRC,  John Olson, Douglas Craig, and others, 36 pages.

Utilizing Lunar Resources

Lunar Bases and Space Activities of the 21st Century (1985)
W.W. Mendell (ed.), 865 pages.

Report of the In Situ Resources Utilization Workshop (1988)
NASA Conference Publication 3017, 100 pages.

Workshop on Production and Uses of Simulated Lunar Materials (1991)

NASA In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) Capability Roadmap Final Report (2005)
Sanders, G. B. and Duke, M. (eds.). Unpublished white paper, 49 pages.

In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) Capability Roadmap Progress Review (2005)
Final Presentation to the National Research Council (NRC). Powerpoint presentation, 204 charts.

Lunar Analog Terrains and Astronaut Training

Report of the Ad Hoc Working Group on Apollo Experiments and Training on the Scientific Aspects of the Apollo Program (1963)
The Sonett Report (final edition), 101 pages; section about training a “Scientist Astronaut” begins on p. 52.

The U.S. Geological Survey, Branch of Astrogeology—A Chronology of Activities from Conception through the End of Project Apollo (1960–1973)

Early Apollo Investigation Field Test 5, October 4-7, 1965, Hopi Buttes, Arizona (1965)
USGS Technical Letter, J. W. M’Gonigle, P. G. Ables, and R. D. Regan, 83 pages.

Apollo Applications Program Field Test 5 (at Hopi Buttes, Arizona) (1967)
USGS Technical Letter, G. A. Swann, N. G. Bailey, and R. D. Regan, 19 pages.

Astronaut’s Guide to Terrestrial Impact Craters (1988)
R. A. F. Grieve et al., LPI Technical Report Number 88-03, 92 p.

JSC-1: A New Lunar Soil Simulant (1994)

Lunar Regolith Simulant Materials Workshop (2005)

Guidebook to the Geology of Barringer Meteorite Crater, Arizona (a.k.a. Meteor Crater) (2007)
David A. Kring, 150 pages

Black Point Lava Flow, Arizona, Lunar Mission Test Site (2008-2010)

NASA’s Analog Missions: Paving the Way for Space Exploration (2011)
NASA NP-2011-06-395-LaRC,  John Olson, Douglas Craig, and others, 66 pages.

Robotic Exploration

Selected Missions

Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO)

Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS)

Summary Report on Lunar Survey Probe Utilization Study (1967)
NASA-CR-89537, JPL760-12, 15 pages.

Contributions of a Lunar Geoscience Observer (LGO) Mission to Fundamental Questions in Lunar Science (1986)

Results & Proceedings of the Lunar Rover/Mobility Systems Workshop (1992)

Data Collection by Robotic Precursors in Support of Project Apollo (1992)
Data Requirements, Program Review, and Evaluation of Results, Dean Eppler

Lifetimes of Lunar Satellite Orbits (1994)
NASA-TP-3394, K.W. Meyer et al., 40 pages.

The Lunar Surface Reference Mission: A Description of Human and Robotic Surface Activities (2003)
Duke, M., Hoffman, S., and Snook, K. NASA Technical Publication 2003-210793, NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, Houston TX

The Unified Lunar Control Network (2007)
USGS Open-file Report 2006-1367, B. A. Archinal et al.

NASA Science Definition Team for the Lunar Atmosphere And Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) Study Report (2008)
26 pages.

Human Exploration

Establishment and Maintenance of a Manned Lunar Base in the Period 1970–1975 (1962)
PRC R-291, Appendix to volume 1, 177 pages.

Lunar Bases and Space Activities in the 21st Century: A Symposium (1984)
NASA-TM-89348, 149 pages.

Lunar Bases and Space Activities of the 21st Century (1985)
W. W. Mendell (ed.), 865 pages.

Developing A Site Selection Strategy for a Lunar Outpost: Science Criteria for Site Selection (1990)

A Site Selection Strategy for a Lunar Outpost: Science and Operational Parameters(1990)

Geoscience and A Lunar Base: A Comprehensive Plan for Lunar Exploration (1990)
NASA CP-3070, Taylor, G. J. and Spudis P. D. (eds.), NASA Conference Publication 3070, 80 pages.

Lighting Constraints on Lunar Surface Operations (1991)
Dean B. Eppler. NASA Technical Memorandum 4271, 24 pages

“First Lunar Outpost; Conceptual Surface Mission" (1992)
(working document, never published). [High level, annotated timeline of a 45-day lunar surface mission tied to the First Lunar Outpost studies].

Pressurized Lunar Rover (1992)
NASA-CR-192034, 106 pages.

Interviews with the Apollo Lunar Surface Astronauts in Support of Planning for EVA Systems Design (1994)
Connors, M., Eppler, D., and Morrow, D. NASA Technical Memorandum 108846, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffet Field, CA.)

Geologic Field Work and General Implications for Planetary EVA Suit Design (1997)
Eppler, D.  Internal Memo, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX

The Lunar Surface Reference Mission: A Description of Human and Robotic Surface Activities (2003)
Duke, M., Hoffman, S., and Snook, K. NASA Technical Publication 2003-210793, NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, Houston TX

Advanced EVA Capabilities: A Study for NASA’s Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concept Program (2004)
Hoffman, S. NASA Technical Publication 2004-212068, NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, Houston TX

Strategic Research to Enable NASA’s Exploration Missions Conference Abstracts (2004) 
NASA-TM-2004-213114, 203 pages.

Electric Power System Technology Options for Lunar Surface Missions (2005)
NASA-TM-2005-213629, Thomas W. Kerslake, Glenn Research Center

The Unified Lunar Control Network (2007)
USGS Open-file Report 2006-1367, B. A. Archinal et al.

Next Generation Rover for Lunar Exploration (2008)
D.A. Harrison, R. Ambrose, B. Bluethmann, and L. Junkin, JSC released document, IEEEAC paper #1196, 13 pages.

Potential Hazards

Ionizing Radiation

Ionizing Radiation on the Moon

Analysis of Surveyor 3 Material and Photographs Returned by Apollo 12 (1972)
NASA-SP-284, 312 pages.

Lunar Dust and Radiation Darkening of Surveyor 3 Surfaces (1972)
NASA-SP-284, W.F. Carroll and P.M. Blair Jr., 7 pages.

Irradiation of the Moon by Galactic Cosmic Rays and Other Particles (1985)
in Lunar Bases, J.H. Adams Jr. and M.M. Shapiro, 13 pages.

Solar-Flare Shielding with Regolith at a Lunar-Base Site (1988)
NASA-TP-2869, J.E. Nealy et al., 28 pages.

Radiation Protection for Human Missions to the Moon and Mars (1991)
NASA-TP-3079, L.C. Simonsen and J.E. Nealy, 30 pages.

Managing Lunar and Mars Mission Radiation Risks Part 1:  Cancer Risks, Uncertainties, and Shielding Effectiveness (2005)
NASA-TP-2005-213164, F.A. Cucinotta et al., 44 pages.

Primary and Secondary Meteorite Bombardment

Lunar Impact Monitoring

Spray Ejected from the Lunar Surface by Meteoroid Impact (1963)
NASA-TN-D-1767, D.E. Gault et al., 40 pages.

Results of Examination of the Returned Surveyor 3 Samples for Particulate Impacts (1972)
in NASA-SP-284, B.G. Cour-Palais et al., 10 pages.

Design of a Thermal and Micrometeorite Protection System for an Unmanned Lunar Cargo Lander (1989) 
NASA-CR-186682, C.A.Hernandez et al., 82 pages.

Dust

ALSEP Environmental Specification Revision:  Lunar Dust (1966)
NASA-CR-153663, 8 pages.

A Study and Analysis of the MSFC Lunar Roving Vehicle Dust Profile Test Program (1971)
NASA-CR-121075, 33 pages.

Analysis of Surveyor 3 Material and Photographs Returned by Apollo 12 (1972)
NASA-SP-284, 312 pages.

Lunar Dust and Radiation Darkening of Surveyor 3 Surfaces (1972)
in NASA-SP-284, W.F. Carroll and P.M. Blair Jr., 7 pages.

Data Analysis to Separate Particles of Different Speed Regimes and Charges (1977)
NASA-CR-159916, 11 pages.

Lunar Dust Transport and Potential Interactions with Power System Components (1991)
NASA-CR-4404, C.M. Katzan and J.L. Edwards, 46 pages.

Meteoroid/Debris Shielding (2003)
NASA-TP-2003-210788, E.L. Christiansen, 111 pages.

Miscellaneous

NASA/USRA University Advanced Design Program: Proceedings of the 6th Annual Summer Conference (1990)
NASA-CR-187041, 356 pages.


Image of astronauts working on the Moon