Lunar and Planetary Institute

 A Spacecraft Tour of the Solar System

Comparative Information

The planetary data table below provides direct comparisons between the Earth and other objects in the solar system. Values are scaled to absolute values for Earth: sidereal period = 365.25 days, volume = 1.08 × 1012 km3, mass = 5.976 × 1024 kg, surface gravity = 9.80 m s–2, and rotational period = 23.93 hr (sidereal day). For example, the surface gravity of Mars is 0.38 × 9.80 = 3.72 m s–2.

 Planetary Data Table Object Sidereal Period Volume Mass Surface Gravity Rotational Period Sun — 1,3000,000 333,000 28.000 24.600* Mercury 0.2410 0.056 0.055 0.370 58.700 Venus 0.6150 0.860 0.815 0.910 –243.00† Earth 1.0000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 Moon 0.0748 0.020 0.012 0.170 27.300 Mars 1.8800 0.150 0.107 0.380 1.030 Jupiter 11.9000 1300.000 318.000 2.300 0.411 Saturn 29.5000 760.000 95.200 0.880 0.428 Uranus 84.0000 50.000 14.500 0.960 –0.720† Neptune 165.0000 45.000 17.100 1.300 0.671 Pluto 248.0000 0.0055 0.0023 0.073 6.390

* Rotational period at the equator of the Sun.
† Rotation is retrograde, opposite to rotation of Earth.

Unit conversion:
1 mm = 0.1 cm = 0.03937 in = 0.003281 ft = 0.00000006214 mi
1 in = 0.08333 ft = 0.00001578 mi = 25.4 mm = 2.54 cm

 Solar System Dimensions Object Diameter Average Distance from Sun Sun 109.000 — Mercury 0.383 4540.0 Venus 0.948 8480.0 Earth 1.000 11,700.0 Moon 0.273 30.2* Mars 0.533 17,900.0 Jupiter 11.200 61,000.0 Saturn 9.450 112,000.0 Uranus 4.020 225,000.0 Neptune 3.880 352,000.0 Pluto 0.180 463,000.0

* Average distance from the Earth.

The equatorial diameter of the Earth, 12,756 kilometers (7654 miles), is defined to be one unit in this scale.

Solar system dimensions can be illustrated on whatever scale is chosen to represent Earth. If Earth were represented by a grain of sand 0.2 millimeters (0.05 inches) in diameter, the Sun would then be 0.2 × 109 = 21.8 millimeters (0.86 inches) in diameter, located 0.2 × 11,700 = 2340 millimeters (92 inches) from Earth, and Pluto would be 0.2 × 463,000 = 92,600 millimeters (304 feet) from the Sun. Similar comparisons can be made with a standard 30.5-cm (12-inch)-diameter globe of Earth, with a corresponding increase in the relevant distances and sizes for the other planets.