Lunar and Planetary Institute







CONSOLIDATED LUNAR ATLAS

Preface

INDEX

(1) Credits
(2) Printing Images
(3) Image Acquisition and Processing
(4) Photographic Data

(1) CREDITS

This is a digital version of the Consolidated Lunar Atlas, by Gerard Kuiper, Ewen Whitaker, Robert Strom, John Fountain, and Stephen Larson. The original atlas was published for the Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories (Office of Aerospace Research) by the Lunar and Planetary Laboratory (University of Arizona) in 1967. Images were taken in two groups: group 1 (non-full-moon images) were imaged with the 61 inch NASA Telescope, Catalina Observatory; group 2 (full-moon images) were taken with the 61-inch U.S. Astrometric Telescope, U.S. Naval Observatory.

The present digital version was created by Eric Douglass, using a copy of the Consolidated Lunar Atlas on loan from the Lunar and Planetary Institute's Center for Information and Research Services. The images marked 'full frame' are of the full photographic plate; the images marked 'close-up' are of the region about the terminator (approximately half of the plate).

At this point I want to express my gratitude to the following people who made this project a reality: Paul Spudis, who authorized the project; Linda Chappell, who both sent the atlas and gave me extensions to complete this project; Lou McKinney, who offered technical expertise in acquiring and processing the images; Jeff Gillis, who reviewed the atlas and offered advice along the way; and my family (Felecia, Michael, and Daniel)...who perennially support my work...no matter how crazy it may appear. Finally, many thanks to Mary Noel, who worked with me throughout this project, from humble beginnings to final product.

(2) PRINTING IMAGES

All images were encoded at 72 dots per inch (dpi), which is appropriate for computer screens but not for printing purposes. Thus, it is HIGHLY RECOMMENDED that the end user increase the resolution before printing. Appropriate credits must be given prior to utilization of the images: "Consolidated Lunar Atlas, G. Kuiper et al., 1967, Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona; digital version by E. Douglass and M.S. O'Dell, 2003, Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston."

(3) IMAGE ACQUISITION AND PROCESSING

The images were taken with a Sony Cyber-shot DSC-F707 digital camera (5.24 mega pixel), with the camera set in macro mode, on a copy stand with four lights overlain by diffusion filters.

The images were processed with Adobe Photoshop. Here images were stretched to 256 levels of gray; the bottom 3-4 levels of gray were dropped; and orphans were dropped (white or black; tenths of one percent). This generally resulted in an increase of gray-scale coverage by 15-20 percent (40-50 levels). Next, the gamma point was moved to keep critical areas of the image usable. Note that this processing especially addressed "dark" areas of the images. As the original images often contain considerable variation across their "shadow" (black) areas, this stretching has made such variations more apparent.

The image was cropped to remove borders and areas of the image that were "black" across entire rows or columns; consequently, few images retain their original size. The images were saved as TIFF files with LZW compression (except for the full-moon images, which were recorded as high-quality JPEG files for space considerations). All images were recorded at 72 pixels per inch (ppi), meaning that the image "size" is considerable larger than the actual photographs. For printing, it is HIGHLY recommended that the end user first increase the resolution.

Note that a number of images contained scratches and smudges. These were generally not removed, as this would require alterations in the actual details of the image; thus, these aspects of image processing (along with sharpening and other enhancements) are left to the end user.

Note that the quality of the original photographs varies widely across the atlas, especially in areas of grain, focus, and reproductions of true black/white.

(4) PHOTOGRAPHIC DATA

Series I

label		date		hour/minute (UT)	colong	l	b
a1, L 175	1938, June 3	o4	00		328.7	5.2	6.6
a2, C 1769	1966, May 6	8	43.3		103.6	5.2	.5
a3, C 2211	1966, June 24	3	48.7		339.9	1.5	-6.4
a4, C 2527	1966, Sept 3	9	47.2		130.2	-2.7	3.9
a5, C 3879	1967, Jan 19	2	56.5		7.2	-3.6	1.5
a6, C 2580	1966, Sept 4	10	43.6		142.9	-4.0	2.7
a7, C 2597	1966, Sept 5	11	43.4		155.6	-5.2	.7
a8, C 3898	1967, Jan 20	1	44.7		18.4	-4.8	.1
a9, C 2620	1966, Sept 6	10	40.5		167.3	-6.6	-.7
a10, C 3027	1966, Oct 24	2	59.7		28.9	3.4	6.6
a11, C 3265	1966, Oct 28	7	52.4		80	-1.7	3.2
a12, C 3718	1966, Dec 23	4	38.0		39.8	-3.5	1.3
a13, C 4079	1967, Jan 22	3	30.8		43.9	-6.3	-2.5
a14, C 2349	1966, Jul 12	11	26.0		204.7	-5.9	1.8
a15, C 358	1965, Dec 6	5	2.0		63.6	-5.8	2.7
a16, C 3252	1966, Oct 28	6	34.0		79.3	-1.7	3.2
b1, l 175	1938, Jun 3	4	00		328.7	5.2	6.6
b2, c 1765	1966, May 6	8	39.8		103.6	5.2	.5
b3, C 4396	1967, Mar 17	2	20.5		340.4	-6	-2.4
b4, C 202	1965, Nov 11	10	6.1		121.9	-3.3	-1.4
B5, C 111	1965, Oct 13	8	23.6		127.9	-4.4	2.0
b6, C 2500	1966, Sept 3	9	26.3		130	-2.7	3.9
b7, C 1384	1966, Apr 27	2	37.7		350.9	-4.6	-5.6
b8, C 2545	1966, Sept 4	10	3.2		142.6	-4	2.7
b9, C 1514	1966, Apr 28	2	37.5		3	-3.8	-6.3
b10, C 1890	1966, May 28	4	1.9		10.1	.5	-6.4
b11, C 2626	1966, Sept 6	10	43.7		167.3	-6.6	-.7
b12, C 3924	1967, Jan 20	3	16		19.5	-4.8	.1
b13, C4184	1967, Feb 19	2	53.8		24.2	-7.4	-3.8
b14, C 2444	1966, Aug 8	11	8.4		173.3	-5.1	2.7
b15, C 4071	1967, Jan 22	3	27.5		43.9	-6.3	-2.7
b16, C 1585	1966, May 2	3	49.9		52.4	1.2	-5.4
b17, C 2862	1966, Oct 8	12	8.7		198.3	-6.7	-6.0
b18, C 363	1965, Dec 6	5	7.0		63.7	-5.8	2.7
b19, C 2396	1966, Jul 13	11	46.7		217.1	-6.5	.4
b20, C 3249	1966, Oct 28	6	32.1		79.3	-1.7	3.2
c1, C 1761	1966, May 6	8	37.5		103.6	5.2	.5
c2, L 175	1938, Jun 3	04	00		328.7	5.2	6.6
c3, C 687	1966, Jan 9	11	18		120.1	1.4	-6.4
c4, C 2202	1966, Jun 24	3	43.3		339.9	1.5	-6.4
c5, C 2499	1966, Sept 3	9	24.4		130.1	-2.7	3.9
c6, C 2544	1966, Sept 4	10	1.3		142.6	-4	2.7
c7, C 1487	1966, Apr 27	3	34.9		351.3	-4.6	-5.6
c8, C 2593	1966, Sept 5	11	40.3		155.6	-5.2	.7
c9, C 3897	1967, Jan 19	3	3.5		7.2	-3.6	1.5
c10, C 1894	1966, May 28	4	6.2		10.1	.5	-6.4
c11, C 2629	1966, Sept 6	10	45.7		167.3	-6.6	-.7
c12, C 2699	1966, Sept 7	11	27		179.9	-7.3	-2
c13, C 3902	1967, Jan 20	1	46.1		18.5	-4.8	.1
c14, C 1960	1966, May 29	3	46.8		22.2	1.5	-5.6
c15, C 1911	1966, May 28*	4	16.4		10.2	.5	-6.4
c16, C 3727	1966, Dec 23	4	43.8		39.8	-3.5	1.3
c17, C 4062	1967, Jan 22	3	20.5		43.8	-6.3	-2.7
c18, C 2928	1966, Oct 9	11	35.3		210.3	-6	-6.5
c19, C 1275	1966, Apr 2	8	26.5		48.8	-2.8	-6.3
c20, C 4259	1967, Feb 22	3	20.1		60.9	-6.6	-6.4
c21, C 369	1965, Dec 6	5	14		63.7	-5.8	2.7
c22, C 2391	1966, Jul 13	11	44.6		217	-6.5	.4
c23, C 3239	1966, Oct 28	6	28.3		79.3	-1.7	3.2
d1, C 1337	1966, Apr 6	7	18		96.9	4.1	-3.6
d2, C 1760	1966, May 6	8	36.4		103.6	5.2	.5
d3, L 175	1938, Jun 3	4	00		328.7	5.2	6.6
d4, C 692	1966, Jan 9	11	21		120	1.4	-6.4
d5, C 2201	1966, Jun 24	3	41.9		339.9	1.7	-6.4
d6, C 2518	1966, Sept 3	9	42.4		130.2	-2.7	3.9
d7, C 230	1965, Nov 12	10	44.6		134.4	-2.4	-3
d8, C 2571	1966, Sept 4	10	37.6		142.9	-4	2.7
d9, C 1411	1966, Apr 27	2	54.4		351	-4.6	-5.6
d10, C 1843	1966, May 27	3	55.6		356.8	-.6	-6.7
d11, C 3362	1966, Nov 3	9	15.3		153.6	-5.8	-5
d12, C 1527	1966, Apr 28	2	50.2		3.2	-3.8	-6.3
d13, C 2668	1966, Sept 6	11	10.1		167.5	-6.6	-.7
d14, C 1900	1966, May 28	4	11.2		10.2	.5	-6.4
d15, C 3904	1967, Jan 20	1	47.1		18.5	-4.8	.1
d16, C 2439	1966, Aug 8	11	3.4		173.3	-5.1	2.7
d17, C 4195	1967, Feb 19	2	56.8		24.2	-7.4	-3.8
d18, C 2695	1966, Sept 7	11	25.2		179.8	-7.3	-2.3
d19, C 3979	1967, Jan 21	2	44.2		31.4	-5.7	-1.3
d20, C 1196	1966, Apr 1	3	22.3		34.1	-4.3	-6.3
d21, C 2303	1966, Jul 11	11	36		191.5	-5	3.2
d22, C 4060	1967, Jan 22	3	17.8		43.8	-6.3	-2.7
d23, C 2857	1966, Oct 8	12	5.1		198.3	-6.7	-6
d24, C 4268	1967, Feb 22	3	22.9		60.9	-6.6	-6.4
d25, C 2923	1966, Oct 9	11	32.6		210.2	-6	-6.5
d26, C 374	1965, Dec 6	5	18		63.8	-5.8	2.7
d27, C 790	1966, Feb 4	6	52.3		74.1	-3.7	-5.2
d28, C 3198	1966, Oct 28	6	7.1		79	-1.7	3.2
e1, C 1355	1966, Apr 6	8	0.0		97.3	4.1	-3.6
e2, C 1726	1966, May 6	8	11.8		103.4	5.2	.5
e3, L 175	1938, Jun 3	4	00		328.7	5.2	6.6
e4, C 648	1966, Jan 9	8	16		118.5	1.2	-6.3
e5, C 4413	1967, Mar 17	2	31.2		340.5	-6	-2.4
e6, C 2491	1966, Sept 3	9	19		130	-2.7	3.9
e7, C 226	1965, Nov 12	10	37.2		134.3	-2.5	-3
e8, C 2564	1966, Sept 4	10	35.4		142.8	-4	2.7
e9, C 1419	1966, Apr 27	2	58.3		351	-4.6	-5.6
e10, C 1850	1966, May 27	3	58.3		357.9	-.6	-6.7
e11, C3355	1966, Nov 3	9	4.6		153.5	-5.8	-5
e12, C3846	1967, Jan 19	2	41.8		7.1	-3.6	1.5
e13, C2663	1966, Sept 6	11	7.5		167.5	-6.6	-.7
e14, C3944	1967, Jan 20	3	27.2		19.6	-4.8	.1
e15, C1968	1966, May 29	3	50.8		22.2	1.5	-5.6
e16, C2720	1966, Sept 7	11	39.2		180	-7.3	-2
e17, C 3977	1967, Jan 21	2	42.5		31.4	-5.7	-1.3
e18, C1199	1966, Apr 1	3	24.2		34.1	-4.3	-6.3
e19, C 2781	1966, Sept 8	11	52.7		192.3	-7.6	-3.4
e20, C 2878	1966, Oct 8	12	18.3		198.4	-6.7	-6
e21, C 4052	1967, Jan 22	3	11		43.7	-6.3	-2.7
e22, C 1262	1966, Apr 2	8	11.7		48.7	-2.8	-6.6
e23, C 1662	1966, May 2	5	45.7		53.4	1.2	-5.4
e24, C 2921	1966, Oct 9	11	31.2		210.2	-6	-6.5
e25, C 378	1965, Dec 6	5	23		63.8	-5.8	-2.7
e26, C 2376	1966, Jul 13	11	35.2		216.9	-6.5	.4
e27, C 96	1966, Feb 4	7	2.3		74.2	-3.7	-5.2
e28, C 3233	1966, Oct 28	6	25.3		79.3	-1.7	3.2
f1, C 1354	1966, Apr 6	7	58.2		97.3	4.1	-3.6
f2, C 1732	1966, May 6	8	15.7		103.4	5.2	.5
f3, L 175	1938, Jun 3	4	00		328.7	5.2	6.6
f4, C 4372	1967, Mar 17	2	8.9		340.3	-6	-2.4
f5, C 701	1966, Jan 9	11	26		120.2	1.4	-6.4
f6, C 101	1965, Oct 13	8	4.2		127.7	-4.5	2
f7, C 223	1965, Nov 12	10	31.2		134.3	-2.4	-3
f8, C 1430	1966, Apr 27	3	3		351.1	-4.6	-5.6	
f9, C 2559	1966, Sept 4	10	32.4		142.8	-4	2.7
f10, C 1794	1966, May 27	3	33.3		356.6	-.6	-6.7
f11, C 2615	1966, Sept 5	12	21.2		155.9	-5.2	.7
f12, C 3853	1967, Jan 19	2	44.7		7.1	-3.6	1.5
f13, C 2661	1966, Sept 6	11	5.6		167.5	-6.6	-.7
f14, C 3950	1967, Jan 20	3	29.9		19.6	-4.8	.1
f15, C 1995	1966, May 29	4	40.6		22.6	1.5	-5.6
f16, C 3745	1966, Dec 23	4	53.8		39.9	-3.5	1.3
f17, C 2317	1966, Jul 11	11	41		191.5	-5	3.2
f18, C 4048	1967, Jan 22	3	7.6		43.7	-6.3	-2.7
f19, C 1256	1966, Apr 2	8	5.2		48.7	-2.8	-6.6
f20, C 2880	1966, oct 8	12	20.3		198.4	-6.7	-6
f21, C 1607	1966, May 2	4	5.9		52.6	1.2	-5.4
f22, C 2365	1966, Jul 12	11	37.3		204.7	-5.9	1.8
f23, C 4301	1967, Feb 22	3	34.9		61	-6.6	-6.4
f24, C 801	1966, Feb 4	7	6.7		74.2	-3.7	-5.2
f25, C 2380	1966, Jul 13	11	37		216.9	-6.5	.4
f26, C 3205	1966, Oct 28	6	10.7		79	-1.7	3.2
g1, L 175	1938, Jun 3	4	00		328.7	5.2	6.6
g2, C 1348	1966, Apr 6	7	31.7		97	4.1	-3.6
g3, C 1735	1966, May 6	8	17.7		103.4	5.2	.5
g4, C 2189	1966, Jun 24	3	36.6		339.8	1.5	-6.4
g5, C 664	1966, Jan 9	8	30		118.7	1.2	-6.3
g6, C 123	1965, Oct 13	9	20.2		128.4	-4.5	1.9
g7, C 220	1965, Nov 12	10	25.1		134.2	-2.5	-3
g8, C 1437	1966, Apr 27	3	5.7		351.1	-4.6	-5.6
g9, C 1856	1966, May 27	4	3.9		357.9	-.6	-6.7
g10, C 2555a	1966, Sept 4	10	30.2		142.8	-4	2.7
g11, C 3870	1967, Jan 19	2	52		7.2	-3.6	1.5
g12, C 2584	1966, Sept 5	11	30.2		155.5	-5.3	.7
g13, C 3911	1967, Jan 20	1	51.6		18.5	-4.8	.1
g14, C 2655	1966, Sept 6	11	2.7		167.5	-6.6	-.7
g15, C 1208	1966, Apr 1	3	31.8		34.2	-4.3	-6.3
g16, C 2435	1966, Aug 8	10	55.2		173.2	-5.1	2.7
g17, C 2743	1966, Sept 7	12	2.7		180.2	-7.3	-2
g18, C 4044	1967, Jan 22	3	4.3		43.7	-6.3	-2.7
g19, C 1254	1966, Apr 2	8	3.3		48.7	-2.8	-6.6
g20, C 2885	1966, Oct 8	12	22.7		198.4	-6.7	-6
g21, C 4308	1967, Feb 22	3	38.2		61	-6.6	-6.4
g22, C 931	1966, Mar 5	6	1		66.5	-2.5	-6.4
g23, C 804	1966, Feb 4	7	8.6		74.2	-3.7	-5.2
g24, C 2821	1966, Sept 10	12	1.7		216.8	-6.8	-5.6
g25, C 558	1966, Jan 6	6	4.2		81	-4.4	-3.1
g26, C 2477	1966, Aug 12	11	40.3		222.5	-7.4	-1.5
h1, C 666	1966, Jan 9	8	32		118.7	1.3	-6.3
h2, C 2153	1966, Jun 24	3	16.9		339.7	1.5	-6.4
h3, C 1444	1966, Apr 27	3	9.8		351.1	-4.6	-5.6
h4, C 1782	1966, May 27	3	19.3		356.5	-.6	-6.7
h5, C 218	1965, Nov 12	10	19.8		134.2	-2.5	-3
h6, C 675	1966, Jan 9	8	39		118.7	1.3	-6.3
h7, C 3912	1967, Jan 20	1	52.3		18.5	-4.8	.1
h8, C 749	1966, Jan 10	9	46		131	3.2	-6.6
h9, C 214	1965, Nov 12	10	10.7		134.1	-2.5	-3
h10, C 2618	1966, Sept 5	12	25.3		156	-5.2	.7
h11, C 3968	1967, Jan 21	2	35.5		31.3	-5.7	-1.3
h12, C 1214	1966, Apr 1	3	37.2		34.2	-4.3	-6.3
h13, C 3372	1966, Nov 3	9	30.7		153.7	-5.8	-5
h14, C 3437	1966, Nov 4	10	24.8		166.4	-5.7	-5.9
h15, C 2653	1966, Sept 6	11	1.2		167.4	-6.6	-.7
h16, C 4036	1967, jan 22	2	53.7		43.6	-6.3	-2.7
h17, C 1318	1966, Apr 2	10	46.2		50	-2.8	-6.6
h18, C 2681	1966, Sept 7	11	14		179.8	-7.3	-2
h19, C 2849	1966, Oct 8	11	56.5		198.2	-6.7	-6
h20, C 142	1965, Oct 19	11	47.6		202.6	-.5	-6.3
h21, C 4321	1967, Feb 22	3	42.9		61	-6.6	-6.4
h22, C 2827	1966, Sept 10	12	6		216.8	-6.8	-5.6
h23, C 162	1965, oct 19	12	12.9		202.8	-.5	-6.3
h24, C 543	1966, Jan 6	5	45		80.9	-4.4	-3.1
h25, C 2933	1966, Oct 9	11	45.2		210.3	-6	-6.5

* This date is in dispute

full moon
full y 842	1960, Mar 13	5	16.6		93.3	-5.2	.5
a1, N5818	1965, Oct 9	6	29.1		78	6.3	-3.6
a2, N16 3171a	1965, Jan 17	7	25.3		85.7	-.1	-3.4
a3, N16 3171a	1965, Jan 17	7	25.3		85.7	-.1	-3.4
b1, N5818	1965, Oct 9	6	29.1		78	6.3	-3.6
b2, N5818	1965, Oct 9	6	29.1		78	6.3	-3.6
b3, N5818	1965, Oct 9	6	29.1		78	6.3	-3.6
b4, N9547c	1966, Dec 1	8	7.8		133.8	-4.6	-5.9
c1, N5818	1965, Oct 9	6	29.1		78	6.3	-3.6
c2, N5818	1965, Oct 9	6	29.1		78	6.3	-3.6
c3, N5818	1965, Oct 9	6	29.1		78	6.3	-3.6
c4, N5818	1965, Oct 9	6	29.1		78	6.3	-3.6
c5, N9547c	1966, Dec 1	8	7.8		133.8	-4.6	-5.9
d1, N5818	1965, Oct 9	6	29.1		78	6.3	-3.6
d2, N5818	1965, Oct 9	6	29.1		78	6.3	-3.6
d3, N5818	1965, Oct 9	6	29.1		78	6.3	-3.6
d4, N5818	1965, Oct 9	6	29.1		78	6.3	-3.6
d5, N9547c	1966, Dec 1	8	7.8		133.8	-4.6	-5.9
e1, N5818	1965, Oct 9	6	29.1		78	6.3	-3.6
e2, N5818	1965, Oct 9	6	29.1		78	6.3	-3.6
e3, N5818	1965, Oct 9	6	29.1		78	6.3	-3.6
e4, N5818	1965, Oct 9	6	29.1		78	6.3	-3.6
e5, N9547c	1966, Dec 1	8	7.8		133.8	-4.6	-5.9
f1, N5818	1965, Oct 9	6	29.1		78	6.3	-3.6
f2, N5818	1965, Oct 9	6	29.1		78	6.3	-3.6
f3, N5818	1965, Oct 9	6	29.1		78	6.3	-3.6
f4, N5818	1965, Oct 9	6	29.1		78	6.3	-3.6
f5, N9547c	1966, Dec 1	8	7.8		133.8	-4.6	-5.9
g1, N5818	1965, Oct 9	6	29.1		78	6.3	-3.6
g2, Y106	1959, Apr 22	3	57		24	-3	.1
g3, L224	1946, Jan 17	7	50.6		78.2	3.7	-2.2
g4, N9547c	1966, Dec 1	8	7.8		133.8	-4.6	-5.9
h1, Y106	1959, Apr 22	3	57		24	-3	.1
h2, Y106	1959, Apr 22	3	57		24	-3	.1
h3, Y482	1959, Sept 18	8	12		335.2	3.6	1.1

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