1969 Mariner 7 IRS: Data Set Recovery and Calibration

 

Laurel E. Kirkland1, Kenneth C. Herr2, Paul B. Forney3, and Donald K. Stone2

 1Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston, TX; 2The Aerospace Corporation, El Segundo, CA; 3Lockheed Martin Missiles and Space, Palo Alto, CA

Contact information


 


ABSTRACT.  Spectra acquired by the 1969 Mariner Mars 7 Infrared Spectrometer (IRS), spanning the wavelength region 1.8-14.4 Ám, have recently been recovered, and spectra covering the thermal wavelengths (5 - 14.4 Ám) have been calibrated.  The calibrated spectra are of high quality, and are available on CDROM to interested scientists by sending a request to the correspondence address above.  Here we present early results of the data set recovery and calibration.

Figure 1:  IRS in its large environmental test chamber, which was used to simulate spaceflight conditions.


1969 Mariner 7 IRS:
Data Set Recovery and Calibration

Introduction.  In 1969 the Mariner 7 Infrared Spectrometers (IRS) returned a unique set of approximately 140 infrared spectra of the planet Mars covering the wavelength region from 1.8 to 14.4 Ám (5550 - 690 cm-1).  Meanwhile a third IRS was actively measuring lab spectra of gases, minerals and ices thought to be present on the "Red Planet."  Unfortunately, over the following three decades, all the IRS inflight calibration data, much of the preflight calibration data, and all of the IRS lab data were lost to the planetary science community.

The IRS spectra contain a wealth of information, but in many ways the data set remains an untouched resource.  In main this is because the IRS spectra of Mars were never released in a version calibrated in wavelength and intensity, and because the lab spectra were never released at all.  Also, computers have improved to the point that it is now practical to manipulate the data more extensively.  Therefore, we desired to recover and calibrate this unique data set.

We located the original IRS data tapes, recovered the spectra measured of Mars, collected instrument and calibration information from the original IRS team, and proceeded with the calibration [Forney and Kirkland,1997; Kirkland et al., 1998].  Thus for the first time since the 1970's, we have IRS spectra that are calibrated in wavelength and intensity using the original data set and calibration information and expertise from the original IRS team.

Our examination shows the calibrated IRS spectra are of high quality.  They have a very good signal to noise ratio, and the extended wavelength coverage has proven informative.  Here, we present information on the recovery and calibration of IRS-7 spectra for the thermal region, and show a preliminary comparison to spectra recently returned by the 1997 Mars Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES), which measures from ~6 to 50 Ám (1670 - 200 cm-1).  Table 1 lists the instrument parameters for IRS, the 1971 Mariner Mars Infrared Spectrometer (IRIS), and TES.  Appendix 1 lists publications that have utilized IRS data.

Table 1: Instrument parameters for IRS, IRIS, and TES.

 

IRS

TES spectrab

IRISb

wavelength range (Ám)

1.8 - 14.4

~6 - 50

5 - 50

spectral resolution at 10 Ám

10 cm-1 (1%)

20 cm-1 (2%)c

2.4 cm-1 (0.24%)

measurements per spectrum

1340

143

1500

approx. measurements per resolution element

5

2

2

spatial resolution (km)

130-500b

3d

125-1000

2.2 Ám SNRa

~190

-

-

6 Ám SNRa

~340

low

low

10 Ám SNRa

~600

~400

~100

 aValue at 6 and 10 Ám is rms at 270K; value at 2.2 Ám is for a typical bright region.  bChristensen, 1998. TES also has one thermal and one reflectance broadband channel. cValues given for the "10 cm-1 sampling mode," where a point is measured every ~10cm-1 [Christensen et al., 1992].  TES also has a "5 cm-1 sampling mode," but the preliminary archive does not contain complete examples of these spectra.  dFrom mapping orbit of 350 km.

Instrument.  IRS used two circular variable interference filters (CVIF) with ~1% resolution to scan continuously two channels, from 1.8 to 6.0 Ám (channel 2) and 4.0 to 14.3 Ám (channel 1) [Herr et al., 1972].  The two channels measured contiguous, overlapping swaths, with the long wavelength channel offset north of the short wavelength channel.  IRS had a spatial resolution of 130 x 80km at closest approach, and each spectrum contains approximately 1340 discrete measurements which were scanned every ten seconds.   Figure 2 and figure 3 show the optical layout.

Uniqueness of IRS data.  Even after 30 years the IRS data set remains unique in the following ways:  (1) it is the only data set which contains both spectra of Mars and also Mars analog minerals, ices, and gases measured with identical instruments and with the laboratory instrument held under simulated flight conditions;  (2) it contains the only spacecraft spectra of Mars which cover both reflected light and thermal emission regions. This is important because each spectral region provides complementary information;  (3) it contains the only laboratory spectra measured of possible atmospheric gases at Mars ambient conditions. Furthermore, these were measured with an instrument identical to the ones which returned the spectra of Mars;  (4) currently it can provide the only internally calibrated spacecraft spectra of the 1.8-3.1 Ám region, which includes the important 3 Ám hydration band.  The 1989 Phobos 2 Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (ISM) measured from 0.77-3.1 Ám, but as a result of problems with its internal calibration, its spectra must rely on a calibrated that forces them to match telescopic spectra (from 0.77-2.5 Ám) [Mustard et al., 1993], or a laboratory analog of Phobos (from 2.5-3.1 Ám) [Erard et al., 1994];  (5) it contains the only spacecraft coverage from 3.1 to 5 Ám;  (6) it contains the only spacecraft coverage from 5 to ~7.5 Ám measured with good SNR;  (7) it contains the best spectral resolution coverage of the 9 Ám band measured while the atmosphere was clear. Also of note are IRS polar cap, post-terminator, and limb scans.

IRS and TES provide the only spacecraft coverage of the informative 9 Ám region measured while the martian atmosphere was very clear.  The only other spacecraft instrument to cover this region was the 1971 Mariner 9 IRIS, which measured spectra during and just after a dust storm.  IRS has a better spectral resolution than TES, but TES has better spatial resolution (3 vs. 130 km), and should ultimately have far better spatial coverage.

Lab data.  The complete IRS data set includes transmission, reflection, and emission-absorption spectra of gases, minerals, ices, and mineral-ice combinations thought to be possible Mars analogs.  The lab measurements were made with a third, flight qualified IRS, called Flight C, which was identical to the instruments which flew on the twin Mariner spacecraft.  To minimize the thermal stray light problems, and to simulate the deep space background, Flight C was placed in an environmental chamber which had liquid nitrogen cooled walls and high emissivity baffles [Herr et al., 1998].   Figure 4 shows the small environmental test chamber that was used to measure the minerals and ices. The large chamber (figure 1 and figure 5) was used for the long path cell and calibration measurements.

Of particular interest are laboratory spectra measured of gases such as CO2 at temperature and pressure conditions thought typical for Mars.  Flight C measured gas samples using a temperature controlled long path cell, which used multiple reflections to provide path lengths up to 2540 meters [Horn and Pimentel 1971; Horn et al. 1972; McAfee 1974].  The long path length is necessary to allow a spectrometer to measure spectra of gases at the low pressures typical of Mars. The cell simulated martian conditions and produced an accurate characterization of martian atmospheric absorptions.  This type of measurement has never been repeated, so these spectra remain unique.  Gases measured include CO2, CO, CH4, NO2, N2O, OCS, O3, and NH3.

Figure 2:   IRS optical layout.   This was scanned from an original blueprint from the Principal Investigator's archive, (Dr. George Pimentel), courtesy of Jeanne Pimentel.

Figure 3:   Disassembled IRS, showing the optical layout. Shown in the same orientation as the drawing above. The telescope mounting ring is on the left. The gearing for the CVIF and calibrator plate is in the center, with the channel 1 monochromater housing visible above, and the channel 2 housing below.

 

Figure 4:   Small environmental test chamber (ETC). The chamber had a cooling jacket filled with liquid N2. Ken Herr (left) and Paul Forney load IRS into the chamber during late pre-flight testing of IRS at Cape Kennedy. The spare flight IRS was later used to measure minerals and ices from within this chamber. The large chamber was used to make the long path cell and calibration measurements (figure 1).

Figure 5:   IRS large ETC configuration.   This shows IRS on the large ETC mount. The gold plated radiator "fence" is visible under IRS, and the two cooling gas bottles are on the right. IRS was optically coupled to the long path cell for gas measurements while IRS was held in the large ETC.

 

IRS data set loss.   From 1969 to 1972 the original IRS team at UC Berkeley used IRS spectra to derive information about the surface and atmosphere of Mars, but the group disbanded after their NASA contract ended in 1972.  Although they had given NASA tapes of the flight data, these were later misplaced, and this resulted in the complete loss of this data set to the planetary science community.

However, the IRS group had given a researcher at UCLA a data tape containing part of the IRS data set [Pleskot and Kieffer, 1977], and in the mid 1980s, Dr. Terry Martin archived this partial data set with NASA [Martin and Kieffer, 1985].  Unfortunately, the tape was missing all the flight calibration spectra, most of the preflight calibration information, and all of the lab spectra. Nonetheless, the availability of the data inspired a new round of Mars research using IRS spectra.  However, the lack of calibration spectra, combined with uncertain knowledge about the original data format and processing that had been applied to the data, resulted in calibration problems which eventually caused most of the newer research to end in frustration.  The data set had the potential to provide unique information on the surface and atmospheric composition of Mars, but much of the information remained inaccessible without a solid calibration.

Data recovery and calibration.  We located the original set of 7-track data tapes that contained the complete IRS data set, and recovered from these tapes all the IRS spectra of Mars, and began recovering the laboratory spectra. Members of the original IRS team participated in the data recovery and calibration [Forney and Kirkland, 1997; Kirkland et al., 1998].  The thermal wavelength spectra of Mars have been calibrated in wavelength and intensity, and the reflected wavelength spectra have received a preliminary wavelength calibration.  Once the recovery and calibration is complete, we plan to archive the complete data set with the NASA Planetary Data System.

One of the chief difficulties encountered by earlier researchers was calibrating the spectra in wavelength [Pleskot and Kieffer, 1977; Martin, 1990; Calvin, 1990].  These early efforts calibrated each spectrum by hand using atmospheric absorptions as wavelength references.  Uncertainties about the processing that had been applied to data on the tape given to Martin apparently caused the main source of difficulty, so we began by recovering the original, unprocessed data, and then drawing on the knowledge of IRS team members for the calibration.  The person who originally calibrated IRS, Paul Forney (IRS Project Scientist), provided without hesitation his original IRS wavelength calibration.  His method proved quick, simple, and effective, and can be applied to all the spectra, thus eliminating the time-consuming hand calibration.

This step-wise approach produced a methodical reconstruction and calibration of the IRS spectra of Mars from ~5 to 14.4 Ám, which includes the spectral region where TES and IRS spectra overlap (~6 to 14.4 Ám).  Calibration of the shorter wavelength IRS data is currently in progress.

The wavelength calibration precision was checked by calculating the standard deviation of the center of the sharp 790 cm-1 atmospheric CO2 band.  This calculation uses all the dayside, non-polar IRS-7 spectra that have good SNR.  The standard deviation is 0.0140 Ám (1.75 cm-1).  The accuracy was checked by comparing IRS band centers to an average IRIS spectrum.

The IRS story emphasizes the importance of obtaining original expertise for recovering and fully utilizing data measured by a complex instrument.  It was crucial to understand how the instrument produced the data, and not just have the data.  With the help of abstract searches and the Internet, finding the IRS crew was not difficult.  Without their help, recovering and fully understanding the IRS spectra would not be possible.

 

COMPARISON TO TES DATA

The Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) recently returned spectra from Mars covering ~6 to 50 Ám (1700 - 200 cm-1), and the spectra are in the early stages of calibration and interpretation [Christensen et al., 1998].  TES and IRS have comparable spectral resolutions at 10 Ám (20 cm-1 for TES and 10 cm-1 for IRS), and both measure this spectral region with good signal-to-noise ratios (~400 for TES and ~600 for IRS, both r.m.s.) [Kirkland et al., 1998; Christensen, 1998].  Since TES and IRS make similar measurements, we desired to compare spectra from both data sets.

Table 1 gives instrument parameters for TES. A preliminary TES archive was released in June 1998.  We converted the archived spectra from radiance to brightness temperature and apparent emissivity [Conel, 1969] with respect to 7.75 Ám, the wavelength chosen based on our work with IRS spectra.

Instrument.  At the heart of TES is a Michelson interferometer spectrometer that measures ~6 - 50 Ám (1667 to 200 cm-1) [Christensen et al., 1992]. TES also has a broadband thermal channel (5.5 - 100 Ám) and a solar reflectance channel (0.3 - 2.7 Ám).  In the most commonly used spectral mode, the "10 cm-1 sampling mode," TES returns spectra containing 143 discrete measurements over a range of ~1470 cm-1, and so records one measurement approximately every 10 cm-1.  TES also has a "5 cm-1 sampling mode," which has better spectral resolution and records 286 measurements, but these spectra are not yet available for comparison to IRS.

In the "10cm-1 sampling mode," the TES unapodized spectral resolution is 12 cm-1, which is the full width at half maximum of the theoretical response function of TES (a sin[x]/x function, Beer, 1992; Christensen et al., 1992) for a mirror throw of 0.25 mm.  Optical apodization caused by the off-axis positioning of each detector within the 2x3 detector array degrades the spectral resolution from that value [Christensen et al., 1992]. In region of the IRS - TES spectral overlap, each TES measurement has an optically apodized FWHM spectral resolution of ~15 to 24 cm-1 [Christensen, pers. comm., 1998].  The "5 cm-1 sampling mode" measures with higher resolution. The off-axis positioning also causes each detector to measure a slightly different wavelength.

TES spectra.  An archive of TES spectra with a preliminary calibration to radiance was released in June 1998 (Mars Global Surveyor Sampler, MGS_001). TES has 6 detectors in a 2x3 array, and each requires its own, slightly different wavelength file [Christensen et al., 1992], but the preliminary archive contains only one file. Comparison with IRS spectra indicates the wavelength file archived is most accurate for detectors 2 and 5, which are the two center detectors.   Figure 6 shows a comparison of IRS and TES spectra, using TES spectra measured by detector 5.  The most prominent atmospheric features present in both data sets are given below in Table 2. Figure 7 shows representative IRS data of the shorter wavelengths, but these spectra are not yet calibrated.

 

Table 2: Prominent atmospheric features in the IRS and TES overlap region.

H2O

CO18O16

CO18O16

dust

CO2

CO2

CO2

CO2

1550 cm-1

(6.45 Ám)

1367

(7.3)

1259

(7.9)

~1110

(~9)

1064

(9.4)

960

(10.4)

791

(12.6)

667

(15)

with upper values in cm-1 and lower in Ám.  From McAfee, 1974; McAfee pers. comm., 1998; Herr et al., 1998.


Figure 6:  IRS - TES comparison.   Red trace is an IRS-7 spectrum, and black and green are TES. Each TES spectrum is the average of three spectra from orbit 34, measured by detector 5. Shown with IRS M7-106. Both spectra are converted to apparent emissivity with respect to 7.75 Ám.


Figure 7:  IRS short wavelength data.   This shows an example IRS spectrum covering part of the shorter wavelengths. The full spectrum continues to 6 Ám. The short wavelength IRS spectra have received a preliminary wavelength calibration, and the intensity calibration is currently in progress. This shows the spectrum before and after a noise filter has been applied, and illustrates the improvement that can be obtained in the signal-to-noise ratio. The lower trace (black) shows spectrum M6-183 before filtering, and the upper trace (gray) the same spectrum after filtering (offset +5 for clarity). Spectra shown in linearized intensity units.

 


 

Appendix 1: Publications Using Mariner Mars IRS Data

(In order by date)

IRS Team Publications:

Herr, K., and G. Pimentel, Infrared absorptions near three microns recorded over the polar cap of Mars, Science 166, 496-498, 1969a.

Herr, K., and G. Pimentel, Infrared Spectroscopy, Mariner Mars 1969 Preliminary Report NASA SP-225, 1969b.

Herr, K., and G. Pimentel, Evidence for solid carbon dioxide in the upper atmosphere of Mars, Science 167, 47-49, 1970.

Herr, K., D. Horn, J. McAfee, and G. Pimentel, Martian topography from the Mariner 6 and 7 infrared spectra, Astron. J. 75, 883-894, 1970.

Pimentel, G., and K. Herr, Infrared Spectrometer Mariner Mars 1969: Data format report, UCB-SSL Series 11 Issue 44, 1970a.

Pimentel, G., and K. Herr, Infrared Spectrometer Mariner Mars 1969: Data format report Supplement 1, UCB-SSL Series 11 Issue 44, 1970b.

Horn, D., and G. Pimentel, 2.5-km Low-temperature multiple reflection cell, App.Op. 10, 1892-1898, 1971.

Herr, K., P. Forney, and G. Pimentel, Surface absorptions recorded by the 1969 Mariner Infrared Spectrometer, Bull. Amer. Astr. Soc. 3, 466-467, 1971.

Herr, K., P. Forney, and G. Pimentel, Mariner Mars 1969 Infrared Spectrometer, App. Op. 11, 493-501, 1972.

Horn, D., J. McAfee, A. Winer, K. Herr, and G. Pimentel, The composition of the Martian atmosphere: Minor Constituents, Icarus 16, 543-556, 1972.

Hughes, J.L. and K. C. Herr, Mariner Mars 1969 infrared spectrometer II: Gas delivery system and Joule-Thompson Cryostat, Cryogenics, 513-519, 1973.

Pimentel, G., P. Forney, and K. Herr, Evidence about hydrate and solid water in the Martian surface from the 1969 Mariner Infrared Spectrometer, JGR 79, 1623-1634, 1974.

McAfee, J., Interpretation of the Infrared Spectra of the Martian Atmosphere Obtained by the Mariner 6 and 7 Infrared Spectrometers, Ph.D. Dissertation, UC Berkeley, CA, 1974.

Forney, P., and L. Kirkland, Calibration of Mariner 6/7 Infrared Spectrometers, LPSC XXVIII, 373-374, 1997.

Herr, K. C., P. B. Forney, and G. C. Pimentel, Mariner Mars 6/7 Infrared Spectrometers: Lab simulation of Mars spectra, LPSC XXIX, abs. 1518, 1998.

Kirkland, L. E., P. B. Forney, and K. C. Herr, Mariner Mars 6/7 infrared spectra: New calibration and a search for water ice clouds, LPSC XXIX, abs. 1516, 1998.

McAfee, J. M., A. M. Winer, K. C. Herr, and G. C. Pimentel, Water vapor abundance and temperature from the Mariner 6 and 7 infrared spectra, LPSC XXIX, abs. 1315, 1998.

Hansen, G. B., L. E. Kirkland, W. M. Calvin, H. H. Kieffer, K. C. Herr, and P. B. Forney, Examination of the most diagnostic spectral regions from visible through thermal infrared for polar studies of Mars, Mars Polar Sci. and Explor. Conf., abs. 3031, 1998.

Kirkland, L. E., and K. C. Herr, Mariner 7 IRS revisited: Evidence for goethite on Mars, Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 30, 1055, 1998.

Kirkland, L. E., and K. C. Herr, Implications of a hydrous weathering product on Mars for future exploration, Workshop on Martian Meteorites, LPI Contribution 956, 24-25, 1998.

Kirkland, L. E., K. C. Herr, J. W. Salisbury, and P. B. Forney, Mariner 7 IRS spectral evidence for a hydrous weathering product on Mars, EOS Suppl. 79, F544, 1998.

Kirkland, L. E., and K. C. Herr, P. B. Forney, and J. W. Salisbury, 1969 Mariner 7 Infrared Spectrometer: Data recovery and comparison to TES, LPSC XXX, abs. 1693, 1999.

Kirkland, L. E., and K. C. Herr, J. M. McAfee, J. W. Salisbury, P. B. Forney, 1969 Mariner Mars IRS thermal infrared spectra of the dark side of Mars, LPSC XXX, abs. 1687, 1999.

Kirkland, L. E. and K. C. Herr, Mariner 7 IRS revisited: Evidence for goethite on Mars, Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 30, 1055, 1998.

Kirkland, L. E. and K. C. Herr, Implications of a hydrous weathering product on Mars for future exploration, Workshop on Martian Meteorites, LPI Contribution 956, 24-25, 1998.

Kirkland, L. E., K. C. Herr, J. W. Salisbury, and P. B. Forney, Mariner 7 IRS spectral evidence for a hydrous weathering product on Mars, EOS Suppl. 79, F544, 1998.

Kirkland, L. E., K. C. Herr, P. B. Forney, and J. W. Salisbury, 1969 Mariner 7 Infrared Spectrometer: Data recovery and comparison to TES, LPSC XXX, abs. 1693, 1999.

Kirkland, L. E., K. C. Herr, J. M. McAfee, J. W. Salisbury, and P. B. Forney, 1969 Mariner Mars IRS thermal infrared spectra of the dark side of Mars, LPSC XXX, abs. 1687, 1999.

Herr, K. C. and L. E. Kirkland, 1969 Mariner Mars Infrared Spectrometer (IRS): Lessons for future exploration, Workshop on Spectroscopy of the Martian Surface: What Next?, abs., LPI, Houston, 1999.

Kirkland, L. E., K. C. Herr, and P. B. Forney, Comparison of 1969 IRS and 1971 IRIS Spectra to TES, Fifth International Conf. on Mars, abs. 6174, 1999.

Kirkland, L. E., K. C. Herr, and J. M. McAfee, Utilizing Night Spectra of Mars for Mineralogy, Fifth International Conf. on Mars, abs. 6186, 1999.

Kirkland, L. E., P. B. Forney, and K. C. Herr, Comparison of Thermal Infrared Spectral Data Sets of Mars: 1969 IRS, 1971 IRIS, and 1996 TES, LPSC XXXI, abs. 1928, 2000.

Kirkland, L. E. and K. C. Herr, Spectral Anomalies in the 11 and 12 Ám Region from the Mariner Mars 7 Infrared Spectrometer, submitted J. Geophys. Res., 1999.

Kirkland, L. E., K. C. Herr, J. W. Salisbury, P. B. Forney, and P. M. Adams, Water in the Martian Aerosol Dust and Surface Material: Results from Mariner 7 IRS and Phobos 2 ISM, submitted J. Geophys. Res., 1999.

 

Early publications by other authors:

Wells, R., Analysis of large-scale Martian topography variations, Geophys. J.R. Astr. Soc. 27, 101-133, 1972.

Pleskot, L., and H. Kieffer, The infrared photometric function of Mars and its bolometric albedo, Icarus 30, 341-359, 1977.

Martin, T., and H. Kieffer, Improved access to Martian infrared radiometry/spectroscopy datasets, LPSC XVI, 1985.

Martin, T., Dataset restoration: The Mariner 6/7 Infrared Spectrometer, Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 17, 723, 1985.

Roush, T., D. Blaney, T. McCord, and R. Singer, Carbonates on Mars: Searching the Mariner 6 and 7 IRS measurements, LPSC XVII, 732-733, 1986.

Huguenin, R., The silicate component of Martian dust, Icarus 70, 162-188, 1987.

McKay, C., and S. Nedell, Are there carbonate deposits in the Valles Marineris, Mars?, Icarus 73, 142-148, 1988.

 

Recent publications:

Abstracts:

Calvin, W. M. Additions and corrections to the absorption coefficients of CO2 ice: Applications to the Martian south polar cap. Bull. Amer. Astron. Soc. 21, 978, 1989.

Martin, T. Z., Mineralogy of the Martian surface from Mariner 6/7 infrared spectrometer data, Rep.Plan. Geol. Pgm NASA TM-4300, 231-233, 1990.

Calvin, W., and T. King, Analysis of Mariner 6 and 7 spectra for weak absorption features from 2 to 6 Ám, LPSC XXI, 153-154, 1990.

Calvin, W., and T. King, Spectral evidence for carbonates on Mars: Hydrous carbonates, LPSC XXII, 169-170, 1991.

Calvin, W. M., A reanalysis of Mariner 6 and 7 Infrared Spectrometers, Annales Geophysicae, v. 10, Supp. III, p. C478, 1992. (annual meeting of Euro. Geophys. Soc.)

Roush, T., T. Martin, and J. Pollack, Analysis of Mariner 7 thermal infrared spectra of Mars and comparison to recent airborne observations, LPSC XXIII, 1179-1180, 1992.

Roush, T., F. Witteborn, J. Bregman, D. Rank, A. Graps, and J. Pollack, Thermal infrared spectra (5.5-9.2 Ám) of Mars obtained from the Kuiper Airborne Observatory, LPSC XXIII, 1181-1182, 1992.

Calvin, W., T. Martin, and G. Hansen, Spatial variation in the seasonal south polar cap of Mars as observed by Mariner 7, LPSC XXIV, 243-244, 1993.

Hansen, G., and T. Z. Martin, Modeling the reflectance of CO2 frost with new optical constants: Application to Martian south polar cap spectra, LPSC XXIV, 601-602, 1993.

Bell, J., T. Roush, J. Pollack, and R. Freedman, Wavelength calibration techniques and subtle surface and atmospheric absorption features in the Mariner 7,6 IRS reflectance data, LPSC XXV, 87-88, 1994.

Blaney, D. L., D. Crisp, and T. Z. Martin, Analysis of the Mariner 6/7 Infrared Spectra of Mars, Bull. Amer. Astron. Soc. 26, 1113-1114, 1994.

Calvin, W., Quantitative analysis of the 3 Ám water of hydration absorption feature in the eastern Valles Marineris. In Workshop on the Evolution of Martian Volatiles. LPI Tech. Rpt. 96-01, Part 1, Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston, 1996.

Calvin, W. M., Bound surface water and CO2 clouds on Mars. Bull. Amer. Astron. Soc. 28, 1059, 1996.

Cimino, G and W. Calvin, Calibration and analysis of Mariner 7 infrared spectra. Bull. Amer. Astron. Soc. 28, 1068, 1996.

Erard, S., and W. Calvin, Composite spectra of Mars, 0.4-3.7 Ám, LPSC XXVII, 339-340, 1996.

Cimino, G., and W. Calvin, The Mariner 7 infrared spectra: Calibration and a preview for TES, LPSC XXVIII, 231-232, 1997.

Calvin, W., A. Treiman, and L. Kirkland, The highlands crust of Mars and the Pathfinder mission: A prospective view from Mariner 6 infrared spectroscopy, Early Mars Conf. LPI, 1997.

Articles and Theses:

Calvin, W., Additions and corrections to the absorption coefficients of CO2 ice: Applications to the Martian south polar cap, JGR 95, 14743-14750, 1990.

Calvin, W. M., Indications of the mineralogy of Callisto and Mars from reflectance spectroscopy. Ph.D. dissertation, Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO, 1991.

Calvin, W., T. King, and R. Clark, Hydrous carbonates on Mars?: Evidence from Mariner 6/7 infrared spectrometer and ground-based spectra, JGR 99, 14659-14675, 1994.

Calvin, W. and T. Martin, Spatial variability in the seasonal south polar cap of Mars, JGR 99, 21143-21152, 1994.

Bell, J. F., W. Calvin, M. E. Ockert-Bell, D. Crisp, J. Pollack, and J. Spencer, Detection and monitoring of H2O and CO2 ice clouds on Mars. JGR 101, 9227-9237, 1996.

Calvin, W., Variation of the 3 Ám absorption feature on Mars: Observations over eastern Valles Marineris by the Mariner 6 infrared spectrometer, JGR 102, 9097-9107, 1997.

Erard, S. and W. Calvin, New composite spectra of Mars, 0.4-5.7 Ám, Icarus 130, 449-460, 1997.

Calvin, W. M., Could Mars be dark and altered?, GRL 25, 1597-1600, 1998.

Kirkland, L. E., Infrared Spectroscopy of Mars, Ph.D. Dissertation, Rice University, TX, 1999.

 


References

Beer, R., Remote Sensing by Fourier Transform Spectroscopy, John Wiley, NY, 1992.

Calvin, W., Additions and corrections to the absorption coefficients of CO2 ice: Applications to the Martian south polar cap, JGR 95, 14743-14750, 1990.

Christensen, P. R. and the TES team, Thermal Emission Spectrometer experiment: Mars Observer mission, JGR 97, 7719-7734, 1992.

Christensen, P. R., Variations in martian surface composition and cloud occurrence determined from thermal infrared spectroscopy: Analysis of Viking and Mariner 9 data, JGR 103, 1733-1746, 1998.

Christensen, P. R., and the TES team, Results from the Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer, Science 279, 1692-1698, 1998.

Conel, J. E., Infrared emissivities of silicates: Experimental results and a cloudy atmosphere model of spectral emission from condensed particulate mediums, JGR 74, 1614-1634, 1969.

Erard, S., J. F. Mustard, S. Murchie, J-P. Bibring, P. Cerroni, and A. Coradini, Martian aerosols: Near-infrared spectral properties and effects on the observation of the surface, Icarus 111, 317-337, 1994.

Forney, P., and L. Kirkland, Calibration of Mariner 6/7 Infrared Spectrometers, LPSC XXVIII, 373-374, 1997.

Herr, K. C., P. B. Forney, and G. C. Pimentel, Mariner Mars 6/7 Infrared Spectrometers: Lab simulation of Mars spectra, LPSC XXIX, abs. 1518, 1998.

Herr, K., P. Forney, and G. Pimentel, Mariner Mars 1969 Infrared Spectrometer, App. Op. 11, 493-501, 1972.

Horn, D., and G. Pimentel, 2.5-km Low-temperature multiple reflection cell, App.Op. 10, 1892-1898, 1971.

Horn, D., J. McAfee, A. Winer, K. Herr, and G. Pimentel, The composition of the Martian atmosphere: Minor Constituents, Icarus 16, 543-556, 1972.

Kirkland, L. E., P. B. Forney, and K. C. Herr, Mariner Mars 6/7 infrared spectra:  New calibration and a search for water ice clouds, LPSC XXIX, abs. 1516, 1998.

Martin, T. Z., and H. Kieffer, Improved access to Martian infrared radiometry/spectroscopy datasets, LPSC XVI, 1985.

Martin, T. Z., Mineralogy of the Martian surface from Mariner 6/7 infrared spectrometer data, Rep. Plan. Geol. Pgm NASA TM-4300, 231-233, 1990.

McAfee, J., Interpretation of the Infrared Spectra of the Martian Atmosphere Obtained by the Mariner 6 and 7 Infrared Spectrometers, Ph.D. Dissertation, UC Berkeley, CA, 1974.

Mustard, J. F., S. Erard, J-P. Bibring, J. W. Head, S. Hurtrez, Y. Langevin, C. M. Pieters, and C. J. Sotin, The surface of Syrtis Major: Composition of the volcanic substrate and mixing with altered dust and soil, JGR 98, 3387-3400, 1993.

Pleskot, L., and H. Kieffer, The infrared photometric function of Mars and its bolometric albedo, Icarus 30, 341-359, 1977.

 

 

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