Venus Express Instruments

ASPERA-4
Neutral and ionized plasma analysis
Principal Investigator: S. Barabash ( IRF, Kiruna, Sweden)

MAG
Magnetic filed measurements
Principal Investigator: T. Zhang (OAW, Graz, Austria)

PFS
Atmospheric vertical sounding by infrared Fourier spectroscopy
Principal Investigator: V. Formisano, IFSI CNR, Frascati, Italy)

SPICAV
Atmospheric spectrometry by star or Sun occultation
Principal Investigator: J.-L. Bertaux (SA/CNRS, Verriéres-le-Buisson, France)

VeRa
Radio sounding of atmosphere
Principal Investigator: PI B. Häusler (Universität der Bundewehr, München, Germany)

VIRTIS
Spectrographic mapping atmosphere and surface
Principal Investigator: P. Drossart (CNRS/LESIA & Observatorire de Paris, France and G. Piccioni (IASF-CNR, Roma, Italy

VMC
Ultraviolet and visible imaging
Principal Investigator: W. Markiewicz (MPAe, Katlenburg-Lindau, Germany)