Apollo 14 Mission
Lunar Sample Overview
The Apollo 14 landing site was in the Fra Mauro formation, which is material ejected by the impact that produced the Imbrium Basin. As one would expect in a region formed by impact-basin debris, most of the 42 kilograms of rocks and soil collected on Apollo 14 are breccias (rocks that are composed of fragments of other, older rocks). The countless impacts that have sculpted the Moon's surface broke many rocks down into small fragments. The heat and pressure of such impacts can sometimes fuse these fragments into new rocks, called breccias. In some cases, the rock fragments that form a breccia are themselves breccias. Such rocks obviously have experienced complex histories with multiple generations of impact events. Some breccias were heated enough that some of the material in the rock was melted. Deciphering the histories of these rocks is a great challenge.
Many of these breccias include material enriched in KREEP. KREEP was first discovered on Apollo 12 but is much more abundant in Apollo 14 samples. Such rocks are enriched in potassium (denoted as K by chemists), rare earth elements (REE), and phosphorus (P). KREEP is believed to have formed early in the history of the Moon during the solidification of the Moon's molten stage, known as the magma ocean.
Although breccias dominate the Apollo 14 samples, some basalt samples were collected, usually as clasts (fragments) in breccias. Basalts are dark-colored rocks that solidified from molten lava and consist primarily of the minerals pyroxene and plagioclase. Generally, the Apollo 14 basalts are similar to basalts found in mare regions studied on other Apollo missions. However, the Apollo 14 basalts are generally richer in aluminum and sometimes richer in potassium than other lunar basalts. The Apollo 14 basalts formed 4.0 to 4.3 billion years ago, older than the volcanism observed at any of the mare locations studied during the Apollo program.
Collecting Moon Rocks describes the tools and procedures used by the Apollo astronauts to collect lunar samples.