As an aid to conference participants, we will be providing a variety of resources and background documents for download. New documents will be added to this page on a regular basis, right up until the time of the meeting. The opinions and information contained in these documents are neither definitive nor infallible, but convey some of the current thinking related to the search for water on Mars. Challenges and alternatives to these ideas are strongly encouraged and will be discussed at the meeting.

Conference Discussion Questions.
A complete listing of the 3–5 key questions that will be addressed during each day of the meeting.

A Proposal for an Integrated Geophysical Strategy to 'Follow the Water' on Mars.
This abstract considers the appropriate role of orbital vs. landed geophysical investigations in the effort to map the three-dimensional distribution and state of subsurface water on Mars. The arguments presented here, as well as alternative concepts, will be discussed as part of a dedicated session on this topic at the conference.


Water-Rich Mars:

The Evolution of the Martian Hydrosphere: Implications for the Fate of a Primordial Ocean and the Current State of the Northern Plains, by S. M. Clifford and T. J. Parker.
Preprint of an upcoming Icarus paper that addresses the potential hydrologic and climatic evolution of a water-rich Mars. Those seeking a concise summary of current thinking regarding the large-scale distribution and state of water in the crust are referred to Appendix A, which updates and revises the previous discussion by Clifford (1993).

Water-Poor/CO2-Rich Mars:

Searching for Water on a Cold Dry Mars, by N. Hoffman.
The belief that Mars is water-rich has recently been challenged by several researchers who argue that much of the geomorphic evidence for water could also be explained by high-pressured releases of subsurface CO2 — arising from either the decomposition of CO2 clathrate or discharges from a reservoir of liquid CO2 at depth. This document is a summary of these arguments by one of the chief proponents of this view.

White papers are studies generated in response to a request by the Mars Program Office for more information or guidance on a particular issue. Because they are often compiled on short notice, by a number of authors, they do not always meet the editorial standards of style and narrative continuity characteristic of papers published in professional journals. Nonetheless, they generally provide a concise and up-to-date review of the current thinking.

A Strategic Framework for the Exploration of the Martian Subsurface.
An analysis of the science issues, goals, potential targets, and techniques relevant to the subsurface exploration of Mars.

Analysis of the Potential of a Mars Orbital Ground Penetrating Radar Instrument in 2005.
A study prepared as input to the Science Definition Team for the 2005 Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, which examined the potential science return and advisability of including a radar sounder.

Report of the Virtual Instrument Science Definition Team on Facility Orbital Radar Sounder Experiment for MRO 2005 (FORSE).
An assessment of the potential science return and ambiguities associated with the inclusion of a 20-MHz radar sounder as a facility instrument on the 2005 orbiter.

Science Rationale and Priorities for Subsurface Drilling in '07.
An analysis of the science rationale and investigative priorities for including a subsurface drill on the proposed 2007 Mars rover/lander. Appendix 1:  Prioritized Investigations and Measurements.


Stratigraphic Profiling with Ground-Penetrating Radar in Permafrost:  Possible Analogs for Mars, by S. A. Arcone.
A review of the use of ground-penetrating radar to investigate permafrost in Alaska and the Dry Valleys of Antarctica and its potential utility on Mars.

Ground Penetrating Radar on Mars, by G. R. Olhoeft.
Reprint of a paper that discusses some of the issues, factors, and concerns related to the use of ground penetration radar on Mars. Reprinted from the Proceedings of GPR '98, Seventh International Conference on Ground Penetrating Radar, which was held May 27–30, 1998 at the University of Kansas.

Looking for Water with Mars Express, by A. F. Chicarro.
A description of the goals and investigations of European Space Agency's 2003 Mars Express mission.

On Water Detection in the Martian Subsurface Using Sounding Radar, by E. Heggy et al.
A preprint of an upcoming paper in Icarus that discusses the geoelectrical properties of the martian subsurface derived from laboratory measurements of mixtures of minerals within the frequency band of 2–10 MHz.

Electromagnetic Sounding of Mars from a Lander or Rover:  Results of an Instrument Study for 2007, by T. Farr et al.
A summary of a NASA-chartered study team's assessment of the feasibility of electromagnetic sounding from a Mars lander or rover, possibly in 2007.

Simulation and Design of Ground-Penetrating Radar for Mars Exploration, by C. J. Leuschen et al.
Preprint of paper that outlines the simulation and development of a lightweight, low-power, ground-penetrating radar system intended for the subsurface exploration of Mars (to be presented at International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium in Sydney, Australia this July).

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