The research scope for this CAN is in the fields of lunar, NEA, and Martian moon studies, with preference given to topics that relate to joint interests of the Science Mission Directorate (SMD) and the Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD), including the Human Research Program (HRP). The proposed research should address NASA’s basic (science) and applied (exploration) research goals and should include broadly-based investigations that address the objectives of this CAN. The proposed research should be integrated; thus, proposals consisting of tasks addressing multifaceted questions must demonstrate significant scientific connections among the tasks. Proposals that only address a single question should strive to integrate interdisciplinary expertise and methodologies. It is expected that teams bring together broadly-based expertise from more than a single institution. As noted in Section 1.1, proposals that address basic and/or applied research will be considered.