Surveyor I

For Release: Filed June 3, 1966
Photo No.: 66-H-590

Pasadena, Calif.: Photograph from United States’ Surveyor I shows landing foot (#2) resting on the lunar surface. Dark area just above foot is depression caused by pressure of the foot as it landed on the moon. Picture was made by a 600-scan-line TV camera positioned about six feet from the area photographed. Bright spots at left are reflections of the sun. Dark rings in lower right are reflections of the vidicon as seen I the camera mirror. The picture was received at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory.


For Release: Filed June 3, 1966
Photo No.: 66-H-591

Surveyor I-8

Pasadena, Calif.: Horizon of moon (top of picture) is seen in this photograph taken June 2, 1966, by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Surveyor I television camera. Horizon is tilted because the camera is tilted. Camera is pointed almost directly at sun, which is out of view. Bright circles in sky are reflections of the sun caused by the camera mirror.


For Release: Filed June 3, 1966
Photo No.: 66-H-592

Surveyor I-10

Pasadena, Calif.: One of three feet (foot #2) upon which National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Surveyor I rests on the surface of the moon is shown in lower left corner of this photo. One of the spacecraft’s low-gain antenna booms extends from lower left to right. Launched May 30, 1966, from Cape Kennedy, Surveyor I landed gently on the moon at 11:17 p.m., Pacific Daylight Time on June 1, 1966.


For Release: Filed June 3, 1966
Photo No.: 66-H-593

Surveyor I-11

Pasadena, Calif.: The National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Surveyor I itself fills most of the frame in this photo transmitted from the spacecraft. Black-and-white circular object at top is container which supplies helium gas for pressurizing Vernier rocket fuel engines. Spherical object at lower left is nitrogen tank which stores gas for attitude control. At lower right is Surveyor’s auxiliary battery cantilevered on struts from the frame.


For Release: Filed June 3, 1966
Photo No.: 66-H-594

Surveyor I-9

Pasadena, Calif.: Edge of the horizon can be seen in the extreme upper right corner of this Surveyor I picture of the lunar surface. Distance from the spacecraft to the curved horizon is about 1½ miles. This 600-scan-line picture was taken during National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Surveyor’s second day on the moon.


For Release: Filed June 14, 1966
Photo No.: 66-H-776

Surveyor I-14

Pasadena, Calif.: Boulder-strewn surface of the Moon’s Ocean of Storms as seen with National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Surveyor I’s television camera shows the outside of a crater rim along right center of the horizon. The crater falls away beyond the horizon and to right of area covered in picture. Distance from the spacecraft to horizon is estimated at several hundred yards. Distance along horizon, from upper left to lower right, is several tens of yards. Boulders on horizon near upper left of photo may be one to two yards in length. Smallest rock fragments seen are several inches across. Rocks, which appear to be broken solid material, apparently were scattered from the crater toward the site where Surveyor rests. Diameter of the crater may be as large as one-third mile. Surveyor’s camera, which covers a six-degree field of view in this photo, is pointed slightly south of east on the Moon. The Sun is almost overhead and shines from upper right to lower left. This 600-scan-line TV picture was transmitted to Earth on the morning of June 5 as Surveyor I began its fourth day of operation on the lunar surface.


For Release: Filed June 16, 1966
Photo No.: 66-H-804

Pasadena, Calif.: Lower three quarters of the photograph covers approximately 50 square meters of the lunar surface. 20 meters southeast of the spacecraft. The large block near the center of the photograph is over 1mm in length.


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Surveyor I-1 (picture #1)

First picture of the moon’s surface transmitted to Earth by the Surveyor I at 11:52 p.m. Pacific Daylight Time shows a number of parts of the spacecraft. Easily identified are one of the three landing legs, its foot pad (#3), an omnidirectional antenna boom and, at lower right, the top of a helium container. Surveyor I touched down on the moon 35 minutes earlier-at 11:17 p.m. Pacific Daylight Time. Exposure was set for the spacecraft itself so that the lunar surface does not show up well.


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Surveyor I-2

Tenth lunar surface picture taken by Surveyor I spacecraft on June 2, 1966, shows a moon rock six inches high and twelve inches long. Smaller pebbles are several inches in diameter. Survey camera was pointing southeast of the moon. Surveyor I, America’s first lunar soft-landing spacecraft, touched down on the moon at 11:17 p.m. Pacific Daylight Time, June 1, 1966. Bright spots at left are reflections of the sun from elements on the camera lens. Small, dark spots spaced at regular intervals are reticle marks on the face plate of the vidicon tube for geometric calibration of the pictures.


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Surveyor I-3

Photograph from United States’ spacecraft Surveyor I shows landing foot (foot #2) resting on the lunar surface. Dark area just above foot is depression caused by its pressure as it landed on the moon. Picture was made by Surveyor I’s television camera (200-sscan-line mode) positioned about six feet from the area photographed. Bright spots at left are reflections of the sun caused by elements of the camera lens. Dark rings in lower right are reflections of the camera filter wheel on the lens as seen in the camera mirror.


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Surveyor I-5

Moonscape taken by television camera aboard Surveyor I spacecraft. White object in lower right corner is an omnidirectional antenna. Mounted on the antenna is a test target for the television system. Beyond the antenna, the view stretches to the lunar horizon, a mile or more away, where a raised area shows. Small pieces of rock are scattered across the surface. Several small craters appear at left. The two vertical streaks are transmission defects. Surveyor I landed on the moon at 11:17 p.m. Pacific Daylight Time, June 1, 1966. This 600-scan-line TV photo was taken during the first five hours after touchdown.


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Surveyor I-7

Surveyor I self-portrait was one of 144 TV pictures taken by the soft lander spacecraft during its first day of operation on the lunar surface. Disc-shaped object in upper left is one of Surveyor’s three feet. Attached members are parts of the landing leg. Beyond the foot is an area where the foot disturbed the lunar surface, apparently making an indentation with a pushed-up ridge of granular material around it. Long white object is one of the spacecraft’s two omnidirectional antenna booms. Large, circular, two-tone object at bottom left, with fittings mounted above, is helium container.


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Surveyor I-13

Composite of two narrow angle pictures – six degree field of view – taken by Surveyor I this morning shows the crest of a small mountain range on the moon about 12 miles northeast of the spacecraft. Only the top of the small mountain shows above the near horizon which is probably less than a mile away. The observable crest of the mountain range is slightly less than three miles long and rises approximately 500 feet above the extension of the near horizon. This small mountain is part of the rim of a nearly buried ancient crater over 60 miles in diameter. Surveyor I landed inside the rim. Scattered rocks in the foreground are probably associated with a crater which lies just to the right of the field of view and only a few hundred yards from the spacecraft.


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Surveyor I-16

SHADOW OF THE MOON – Lunar visitor Surveyor I takes picture of its own shadow against moon’s surface as the evening sun furnishes proper back-lighting. This 600-scan-line, wide angle (25-degree field of view) TV picture was taken by Surveyor’s camera at 11:55 a.m. PDT, June 13, less than 24 hours before the sun set on the site where the spacecraft landed. Portion of horizon can be seen in upper right corner.


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Surveyor I-17

Granular surface particles as small as 1/50-inch can be resolved in this computer-enhanced photograph taken on the moon by Surveyor I. The narrow-angle (six-degree field of view) picture shows one of the spacecraft’s three landing feet and the depression it made on the lunar surface. Upper part of the foot is made of honeycomb structure with a crushing strength of 20 pounds per square inch. Lower part crushes at 10 psi. Computer filtering of the picture data in the original photograph accentuates the fine detail in the disturbed lunar surface. Spacecraft parts identifiable include the footpad, an attitude control gas jet and the color calibration wheel mounted on the foot.


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Surveyor I-18

Granular surface particles as small as 1/50th inch can be resolved in this computer-enhanced photograph taken on the moon by Surveyor I. The narrow-angle (six-degree field of view) picture shows the imprint of one of Surveyor’s crushable blocks directly under the spacecraft. The block, one of three mounted at the corners of the triangular spaceframe, mashed the moon’s surface upon touchdown June 1, 1966, indication that the shock absorbers compressed as the three feet landed almost simultaneously. Computer filtering of the picture data in the original photograph accentuates the fine detail in the disturbed lunar surface.


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Surveyor I-19

Spherical mosaic of narrow-angle photographs of the lunar scene taken by Surveyor I on June 12, 1966, two days before nightfall on the moon. Each photo chip is two inches square and represents a six-degree field of view as seen by Surveyor’s TV camera. The pictures are arranged on the concave surface of a three-foot hemisphere to form the panorama. The sun is shining from the west (right). Tilt of the horizon is due to off-vertical mounting of the camera on the spaceframe. The scene portrayed is the same as that shown 24 hours later with the sun at a lower angle in picture #20.


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Surveyor I-20

Mosaic of narrow-angle pictures of moon taken by Surveyor I’s television camera forms a panoramic view of lunar terrain stretching approximately 130 degrees across horizon. Each photo chip is two inches square and represents a six-degree field of view as seen by the camera. The pictures are mounted in overlapping fashion against the concave surface of a three-foot hemisphere. When completed, the hemispheres in picture #20 and #21 will form a complete 360-degree view from Surveyor. The narrow-angle survey was made June 13, about 24 hours before sundown on the site pictures.


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Surveyor I-21

Mosaic of narrow-angle pictures of moon taken by Surveyor I’s television camera forms a panoramic view of lunar terrain stretching approximately 115 degrees across the horizon. Dramatic elongated shadow of the spacecraft was created by the low sun sinking on the horizon behind Surveyor. Each photo chip is two inches square and represents a six-degree field of view as seen by the camera. The pictures are mounted on the concave surface of a three-foot hemisphere. When completed, the hemispheres in pictures #21 and #20 will form a complete 360-degree view from Surveyor. Parts of the spacecraft identifiable at left are (from top) one of the antenna booms, helium tank, nitrogen tank (cantilevered on braces) the auxiliary battery. The survey was made June 13, about 24 hours before sundown on the site pictured.


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Surveyor I-22

Sundown on the moon was photographed by Surveyor I’s television camera June 14, 1966, at 9:03 a.m. PDT, and again one minute later (see picture #23). The sun disappeared over the lunar horizon at 9:18 a.m. Data block is at right with the camera seeing the sunset upside down. The moon’s horizon is across top of picture with the solar corona – the sun’s atmosphere – peeking out below. “Ghost” at left is a blurred image of Surveyor’s low-gain antenna boom probably faintly illuminated by earthshine. For picture #22, the camera had a narrow-angle (six-degree) field of view. Picture #23 is a wide-angle shot (5-degree) field of view of the same scene.


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Surveyor I-23

Sundown on the moon was photographed by Surveyor I’s television camera June 14, 1966, at 9:04 a.m. PDT. (Companion picture, #22, was made one minute earlier.) The sun disappeared over the lunar horizon at 9:18 a.m. Data block is at right with the camera seeing the sunset upside down. The moon’s horizon is across the top of picture with the solar corona – the sun’s upper atmosphere – peeking out below. “Ghost” at left of sunlight is a blurred image of Surveyor’s low-gain antenna boom probably faintly illuminated by earthshine. For picture #23, the camera had a wide-angle (25-degree) field of view. Picture #22 is a narrow-angle shot (six-degree field of view) of the same scene.


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Surveyor I-26

Close-up photo at low sun illumination near Surveyor I showing cratered and lumpy texture of the lunar surface. Large block near center of picture is several centimeters wide. Picture, which covers 6-degree field of view, was transmitted to Earth from Surveyor I on June 12, 1966.


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Surveyor I-27

Narrow-angle photo of the lunar scene southwest of Surveyor I showing medium-sized crater near horizon and degris on its rim. This 600-scan-line picture was taken June 12, 1966.


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Surveyor I-28

Photo of small pinnacle of moon rock about 2 inches high near the Surveyor I casts shadow during picture-taking session June 12, 1966.


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Surveyor I-30

Silhouette of its own TV camera and portion of spaceframe are portrayed in this picture taken June 12, 1966, by Surveyor I against its landing site in the moon’s Ocean of Storms. Shadow of lower edge of solar panel can be seen at the top.


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Surveyor I-31

Crest of a small mountain range on the moon about 12 miles northeast of the landing site of Surveyor I is seen in this narrow-angle (six-degree field of view) picture taken June 10 by the spacecraft’s television camera. Only the top of the mountain shows above the near horizon which is probably less than a mile away. The mountain, which rises about 500 feet above the near horizon, is part of the rim of a nearly buried ancient crater more than 60 miles in diameter. Surveyor I landed inside the “ghost” crater at 11:17 p.m. PDT on June 1. Scattered rocks in the foreground probably are associated with a crater which lies just to the right of the field of view and only a few hundred yards from the spacecraft.


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